Distribution and density
In 2008 the average population density for New Zealand was 14,9 per km2 (4,128,384 inhabitants living in 270,534 km2). Although the distribution of population over the country is very uneven, the population density map shows a relatively simple pattern. Over 75 percent of the population live on the North Island, and nearly a third of the population in the Auckland region. In Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, the population started off with 155 people in 1839, which nowadays has grown to 380000 residents.
• Tourism, people from all over the world have come to New Zealand to discover the beauty there.
• Politics, in New Zealand there is a democratic monarchy, just like we have in the Netherlands.
• Because New Zealand is an MEDC (More Economically Developed Country) it has good education system, health facilities and entertainment.
Because the New Zealand population is highly urbanised, 86 percent of the population live in an urban area. The rest lives mostly in rural area. A difference between the distributions in ethnic group is there also. Pacific people & Asians almost all (94 %) live in the urban areas, whereas the European and Mãori (indigenous people of New Zealand) people there is only 67 % living in the urban areas of New Zealand.
Another factor that affects the distribution is the relief. The Southern Island is mountainous and hilly. The North Island is less mountainous, but has many volcanoes. Because there are some active volcanoes, the soil there is very fertile to grow crops.
Conclusion: Most people live on the Northern Island, especially in the Auckland region.
At the beginning of the 20th century, New Zealand was a country of young people. Half of the population was ages 23 years or younger. There was a high birth rate (fertility) and high death rate (mortality). But then there was a baby boom, followed by a decline in birth rate and in infant mortality. At the end of the 20th century the death rate started to fell too. In 2001, half the population was over 34 years of age, and this age will only rise and rise.
New Zealand’s population is estimated to increase by one person every 9 minutes and 59 seconds because:
• One birth every 8 minutes and 19 seconds
• One death every 19 minutes and 17 seconds
Also migration affects this increase.
21,8% of the total population is aged 0-14 years. This is the only group that has more males then females. The economically active take 66,2 % of the total population. And the +65 have the smallest group of all, with only 12% of the total population. This means that therefore a dependency ratio of 53,8. This means that for every 100 people of working age, there were 53,8 people dependent upon them. The difference between males and females is very small, there are just 0.01% more females. But there is a bigger difference between the life expectancy of the sexes. Women are expected to become 4 years older then men, 82 years old. So for the total population the life expectancy will be 80.
In the year 2008, it was estimated that per 1 woman, there are 2.11 children born, and the infant mortality is 4,99 deaths per 1000 live births. More boys die then girls. But in that same year, more boys were born then girls, so that compensates it again.
With a low birth rate and a lower death rate, New Zealand has reached stage 4 of the demographic transition model, just like most of the MEDC. This means that it has passed all other stages and has now a good economy. Over the years the country has developed, better technologies made greater and better companies, for better trade. Most MEDC’s are situated in the northern hemisphere, but New Zealand (Australia also) is an exception. Auckland is the centre of the economics in New Zealand, because of the good transport there. Although some areas in the country aren’t that developed. The northern island is for example much more developed then it’s southern brother.
Eventually it will pass into stage 5, with the birth rate lower then the death rate. This will cause the population of the country to fall down, which will be bad for the economy
But why will New Zealand pass into stage 5? Well, there is an easy answer; people do not reproduce enough to replace their parents’ generation. Women want to have a good career, instead of taking care of their child(ren). Or people don’t want to have children, because you have to pay very much money for them. But there are consequences… Many people have to work harder, to have the same economy as before.
In stage 5 New Zealand, like other developed nations, will become an ageing country. If fertility stays at or below the replacement level the long-term consequence would be a population age structure with more elderly than children, and with 1 in 4 of all New Zealanders over 64 years of age. From a rapidly growing population, to a slower growing population and now to a rapidly ageing population, New Zealand is changing. But why did New Zealand become an ageing population? This is due to some problems New Zealand faced and will be facing:
• Birth rate is falling below replacement levels
• More older workers will be needed
• Higher dependency ratios
A country can prevent this to happen. You can do the opposite as of what they did in China with the one-child policy. Instead of having very few babies born, there need to be many babies born. The government can give money for the children’s education and other necessities. This is better than high pensions for the old people. This can lead to a disaster, because the one-child policy in China was also a failure. And if the country waits to long it will face money-problems, what will not be very good for the country and it’s economics.
Other possibilities you can do, is to make the country pro-natalist;
• No abortion & contraception
• Financial & social incentives
All began with the Polynesian settlement in New Zealand in the thirteenth century. Much later Europeans came to immigrate to there and now they still come from Europe and East Asia and the Pacific. Migration statistics count and describe movement of people into and out of New Zealand (international or external migration), and within the country (internal migration). International travel and migration statistics record arrivals to and departures from New Zealand by overseas visitors, New Zealand resident travelers and permanent and long-term migrants (immigrants and emigrants). Internal migration statistics count numbers of residents moving within New Zealand and is measured by the five-yearly Census of Population and Dwellings. Information on reasons for moving or not moving is available from other surveys. For 1000 of people of the total population, 2.62 are migrants. Approximately 1.5 % of the population is immigrant, so about 45000 people. Compared to other countries is this amount pretty high. It is supposed that the immigration will only decrease over the years.
But now the big question is: ‘Why do people immigrate to New Zealand?’. These are called the ‘pull’ factors.
1. All new Zealanders are migrants or descendent of migrants, so new comers are always welcome.
2. New Zealand has a modern, prosperous, developed economy. It has a high standard of living.
3. New Zealand is in need of skilled workers in various fields.
4. New Zealand’s population consists of just over 4 million people.
5. The primary language of the country is English.
6. The New Zealand landscape is spectacular including stunning bays, lakes, forests & mountains.
7. Sport, leisure and an outdoor lifestyle are regarded extremely highly in New Zealand.
On the other hand you have reasons why you shouldn’t move to New Zealand:
1. Emigrants take away the jobs of the local people.
2. Taking benefits of the welfare.
3. Because of more workers in the economy, they create competition in the labour market and therefore the wages of native workers will fall.
4. More people need education and health where maybe can’t be taken care of.
To sum up all gains and losses from immigration we can conclude something. Migration creates jobs and business opportunities, they add to the social and cultural fabric of New Zealand. They bring new ideas and technologies for a better economy. But they also take away jobs, some of which can’t be filled by the locals.
New Zealand has been a great immigrant-receiving nation of modern times, the diverse immigration has enriched their country.
When you had much discussion with friends and family and have decided to move to New Zealand there is a factor of permission;
o “Under the Immigration Act 1987 a visa represents permission to travel to New Zealand and a permit is permission to be in New Zealand. All permits expire when the holder leaves New Zealand. Possession of any visa other than a Returning Resident’s Visa does not entitle the holder to a permit as of right, rather the grant of a permit is decided by the immigration officer at the port of entry.” (Wikipedia)