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Overzicht 1500-1800

Beoordeling 3.6
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  • 4e klas tto vwo | 786 woorden
  • 2 februari 2016
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Time of discoverers & reformers (1500-1600), period 5




  • Renaissance: rebirth of art




  • Architecture: Dome of Florence:

    • Santa Maria del Fiore

    • By Brunellesschi

    • Biggest dome till renaissance (till then)

    • Inner and outer construction à inner was needed to build a light construction holding it together à construction of ribbons and wood






  • Leonardo da Vinci made the Homo Quadratus (ca. 1490)

    • Based on the theory written by Vitruvius called “Vitruvian Man”

    • Vitruvius described the human figure as being the principal source of proportion among the Classical order of architecture






  • David sculptures:

    • Donatello made the bronze sculpture called David, this was the first free-standing sculpture since antiquity. Between the feet of David you can see the head of Goliath.

    • Michelangelo made the marble David, ordered by Florence its city council-àthis was symbolic because Florence was also a small city in that time so they showed they were still powerful besides being small. On the shoulder of David you can see his swing.






  • Polymath/ Homo Universalis = a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas




  • Music:




  • Not Gregorian chant but music with chords (major & minor scales) and rhythms

  • Vocal: mass (sang by choirs in church), madrigal (polyphonic song à multiple voices)

  • Instrumental: danceforms




  • Arnolfini Portrait, Jan van Eijk

    • Dog represents loyalty

    • Burning candle represents the presence of God

    • They’re married because the hair of the woman isn’t loose

    • The woman standing next to the bed represents the woman taking care of the household

    • The man standing next to the window represents the man taking care of the outside world

    • Oranges symbolize wealth

    • Woman: pregnant/ fashion?






  • Other characteristics of the time of discoverers and reformers:

    • People learned reading and writing so they were able to create their own interpretation of the Bible

    • People started science à banned from the church




















Women:



- Ruff: coloured and wired collar pleated into ruffles, could be made of lace, or jewelled



- Neck wisk: a falling ruff that was open at the front, resembling a collar



- Basquine: boned bodice made of whalebone and leather, gave the appearance of wider shoulders tapering to a tiny waist



- Finestrella sleeves: sleeves where the outer fabric was slit horizontally and the sleeves of the undergarment were pulled through



- Wings: rolled fabric worn vertically around each shoulder, between the sleeve and bodice



- Farthingale: topmost petticoat; used to give shape to the skirt



- Verdingale: stiff sheel of fabric, often pleated, worn between bodice and the skirt



- Wasp waist: deep V-shaped waistline above the skirt





Church did counter-reformation (see next period)



















Men:



- Beret: thin, loose hat that usually tilts towards one side of the head



- Doublet: man’s bodice



- Funnel sleeves: sleeves that were fitted at the upper arm and ballooned out, fitted around the wrist



- Canions: upper stocks worn from the doublet to the knee



- Truck hose: balloonish-looking breeches that extended from the doublet to above the knee



- Codpiece: padded triangle of fabric worn laced to the front of the trunk hose



- Duckbill: low shoes







Time of regents and monarchs (1600-1700), period 6




  • Time of counter-reformation

  • Visual arts: time of baroque (inside churches)

  • Baroque:

    • Both southern & northern Europe

    • Diego Vélazquez, Las Meninas, 1656

    • Heavily decorated, lots of details

    • Rembrandt van Rijn: famous for clair obscure à creates light and shadow parts à not detailed, not like a picture, rough pencil strokes






  • Porcelain, Delftware (called “China” by the English because it’s originally from China) à invented the Tulip Vase, showed your wealth




  • Music:

    • Opera was invented

    • First composer was Monteverdi, he made l’Orfeo

    • Basso continuo: bassline played on an instrument which continues all the time

    • Melodies have complex decorated melodic lines (Baroque)

    • Start of era in which opera was a music style

    • Music becomes more dramatic

    • Rise of instrumental music (basso continuo)

    • Concertato: contrast between opposing groups of voices and groups of instruments



  • 2 types of opera:

    • Opera Seria: heroic, based on mythological stories

    • Opera Buffa: ordinary themes





Time of wigs and revolutions (1700 – 1800), period 7




  • Biggest revolution: French revolution




  • Rococo style: even more detailed and filled than Baroque, about ordinary themes, famous painter: Jean Antoine Watteau




  • Neoclassicism

    • The Death of Marat (1793) by Jacques-Louis David

    • Half-empty, lot of negative space

    • Paint human body in an objective way (like a sculpture) à focus on the anatomy of the human body






  • Design: Meissenporcelain

    • Factory made, so affordable for many more people



  • First Opera Buffa was made by Mozart: Die Zauberflöte (1791), which is a comic and not heroic




  • St Matthew Passion, Bach (1729)

    • Last days of the life of Jesus Christ

    • Eastern

    • Bach made popular composition containing text from the Bible






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