Table of Contents
Rasputin; The Movie Page 3
The Romanovs; The Tsar Family Page 5
Grigori Rasputin; ‘Evil Monk’ Page 6
The Russian Revolution; Cold And Bloody Page 9
Rasputin; The Movie
Rasputin walked trough the landscape of Russia. A men asked him a question, but Rasputin doesn’t wanted to answer that. The man became angry and started to hit and kick him. When Rasputin lay on the ground and he looked up he saw the holy virgin, Maria. Rasputin decided to go to a church and to tell about his vision of the holy virgin. And that’s what he did. The bishop of Saint Petersburg believed him.
The Romanov family, the Tsar family of Russia, came of a hard time. The Russian nation doesn’t want to listen to the Tsar anymore and the Tsarevitch (the heir to the throne of the Tsar), Alexei, was very ill. He had haemophilia, a blood disease. The bishop of Saint Petersburg advised Tsar Nicolas the 2nd and his wife Tsarina Alexandra to ask Rasputin for help. So Rasputin came to
Heal Alexei. Rasputin lay his hand on the legs of Alexei and asked of the pain was gone. Alexei answered the question with yes and he was able to walk again. Alexei ran to his dad and the whole family thought that it was a miracle what just happened.
The Tsar family believed in God at first and second it believed in their own power. Russia needed a mother, the Romanovs. Nicolas was not sure of he believed in Rasputin, it could be true that Rasputin talked to God but it could also be the devil. So Nicolas invited Rasputin to dinner. Rasputin talked to Alexandra and he asked her of she believed in faith. Rasputin manipulated Alexandra and they kissed. When they are having dinner it seemed to be that Rasputin doesn’t has table manors at all. And he also talked about disgusting subjects. So the Tsar wanted that Rasputin leaved the palace.
Now Alexei has healed, the whole family goes to the church. And than suddenly, out of nowhere Alexei’s nose started to bleed. Alexei, his mother and his sister leaved the church. They sent someone to get Rasputin. And again Rasputin healed the little boy. Now the Tsar believed in Rasputin and his powers. But the minister doesn’t believed him. So he cautioned everyone to watch out for him. Nicolas doesn’t wanted that Rasputin visited his palace again.
The war started in Russia, that means that the Tsar had to go to the front. Alexei’s ear started to bleed and the Tsarina asked for Rasputin again. He healed Alexei for the third time.
Felix Yusupov invited Rasputin to dine at his home on 29 December 1916 where he was given poisoned wine and cakes. Alarmed at Rasputin's apparent immunity to the poison Yusupov shot him in panic. But Rasputin survived this shot and ran away. But he was again shot and now he was death.
It was in the early morning of the 16th of July (1918) and the ex-Tsar Nicolas, Tsarina Alexandra, their daughters Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia, Tsarevitch Alexei, the court-physician Botkin, Nicolas valet Trupp, Alexandra’s parlour maid Demidova and the cook Charitonov had to go to a basement. The ministers said that they were save there . But suddenly they began to shoot on the Tsar family. The man and Alexandra were at once death. The girls fell at the ground and died later, the corsets those they were wearing, were filled with diamonds and those stopped the first bullets.
The Romanovs; The Tsar Family
Alexander II*17-4-1818+3-3-1881 Maria Alexandrovna
Alexander III*10-3-1845+1-11-1894 Maria Romanova*26-11-1847+13-10-1928
Alexandra*25-4-1872+16-7-1918 Nicolas II*6-5-1868+16-7-1918
Olga*15-11-1895+16-7-1918 Tatiana*10-6-1897+16-7-1918 Maria*26-6-1899+16-7-1918 Anastasia*18-6-1901+16-7-1918 Alexei*12-8-1904+16-7-1918
Grigori Rasputin; ‘Evil Monk’
Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (1872-1916) was the infamous 'holy man' whose ability to heal the Tsar and Tsarina's son Alexei led to his being adopted as a supreme mystic at court. Growing in influence to the point where he effectively dictated policy he was eventually assassinated by a group of court conspirators in December 1916.
Born in 1872 at Pokrovskoye in Siberia to a peasant family, Rasputin's limited education left him without the ability to either read or write. Even at a young age he earned himself such a reputation for devoted debauchery that his actual name of Grigori Yefimovich Novykh was replaced with the surname 'Rasputin', Russian for 'debauched one'.
Having undergone a form of religious conversion while aged 18 Rasputin embraced the Khlysty sect. Happily for Rasputin (given his reputation) the sect preached the notion that the closest relationship to God could best be achieved while exhausted from prolonged sexual engagements.
Rasputin married at age 19, to Proskovia Fyodorovna, who bore him four children. Unsettled, Rasputin left his wife and travelled, variously to Greece and Jerusalem, where he established a reputation (self-created) as a holy man.
Winding up in St. Petersburg in 1903 Rasputin met up with the Bishop of Saratov, Hermogen. Since the Romanov court at that time was dabbling in mysticism Rasputin was recommended in 1905 by Hermogen to the royal couple.
However Rasputin's rise to royal influence dates from his summons to the royal palace in an attempt to try and prevent their son Alexei’s continuing loss of blood (as a haemophiliac). Where all others had failed Rasputin succeeding in stemming the boy's loss of blood - probably through hypnotism - and Rasputin's reputation as a mystic healer was sealed by the immense gratitude of the Tsar and (especially) the Tsarina.
Careful to maintain his pretence of being a humble if mystically talented peasant while in the royal couple's presence, Rasputin however lost no time in indulging his voracious sexual appetite outside the court. He shortly afterwards hit upon the satisfying discovery that sexual contact with his own body imbued a healing effect upon women.
The Tsar, informed in detail of Rasputin's scandalous conduct, initially dismissed the 'mad monk' from court; however the influence of his wife, Alexandra, ensured his rapid recall. Thereafter both Nicholas and Alexandra declined to give credence to further reports of Rasputin's misbehaviour; indeed, Alexandra positively discouraged criticism of 'our friend'.
Since news of Alexei's condition was not allowed to be made general knowledge the public at large, unaware of Rasputin's chief role as a healer at court, assumed that he was actively seducing Alexandra. Salacious details of his general conduct, fed and (if it were possible) exaggerated by his many ill-wishers, became the subject of public scandal.
Rasputin's influence continued into wartime. Alexandra sought his opinion on a variety of policy matters. Rasputin, generally ready to offer advice, occasionally offered advice on Russian military strategy, although such advice never proved beneficial.
In one sense Rasputin's presence, while generally damaging public perception of the Romanovs, nevertheless benefited the Tsar. Military calamities were often attributed by the Russian public to Rasputin's baleful influence: as such it therefore deflected direct criticism away from the Tsar himself.
However with the Tsar's decision to take personal command of his army from the front (thereby reliving his uncle, Grand Duke Nikolai, of the role), disaster beckoned. Not only was the Tsar thereafter directly associated with the fruits of his army's efforts (which continued its extended poor run), but in his absence domestic governance of political affairs was effectively left in the hands of the Tsarina and Rasputin (with the Prime Minister, Boris Sturmer, ever willing to defer to the Tsarina's wishes).
With Rasputin offering advice on the appointment (and dismissal) of public and church officials, and rumour spreading that the Tsarina and Rasputin were in the pay of the Germans, a group of nobles at court, led by Felix Yusupov, determined to resolve the appalling damage inflicted by Rasputin upon the monarchy by arranging his murder.
Yusupov invited Rasputin to dine at his home on 29 December 1916 where he was given poisoned wine and cakes. Alarmed at Rasputin's apparent immunity to the poison Yusupov shot him in panic.
After a brief period of collapse Rasputin recovered and managed to escape into the courtyard, where he was again shot (by another conspirator, Vladimir Purishkevich). Finally, presumably to make quite sure of the matter, Rasputin's body was dropped through a hole in the Neva river, where he finally died by drowning. His corpse was later discovered on the Neva's banks.
As an attempt to salvage the credibility of the monarchy Yusupov's bold move came too late; if anything, the murder of Rasputin removed a buffer between the royal family and their critics: no longer could the nation's ills be attributed to the mad monk who had prophesised his own demise.
I write and leave behind me this letter at St. Petersburg. I feel that I shall leave life before January 1st. I wish to make known to the Russian people, to Papa, to the Russian Mother and to the children, to the land of Russia, what they must understand. If I am killed by common assassins, and especially by my brothers the Russian peasants, you, Tsar of Russia, have nothing to fear, remain on your throne and govern, and you, Russian Tsar, will have nothing to fear for your children, they will reign for hundreds of years in Russia. But if I am murdered by boyars, nobles, and if they shed my blood, their hands will remain soiled with my blood, for twenty-five years they will not wash their hands from my blood. They will leave Russia. Brothers will kill brothers, and they will kill each other and hate each other, and for twenty-five years there will be no nobles in the country. Tsar of the land of Russia, if you hear the sound of the bell which will tell you that Grigori has been killed, you must know this: if it was your relations who have wrought my death then no one of your family, that is to say, none of your children or relations will remain alive for more than two years. They will be killed by the Russian people... I shall be killed. I am no longer among the living. Pray, pray, be strong, think of your blessed family.
Words written by Grigori Rasputin in a letter to Tsarina Alexandra, 7/12/1916. 23 days later, Rasputin was killed, by two relatives of the Tsar Nicholas II. 19 months after Rasputin's death, the Tsar and his family lay dead.
The Russian Revolution; Cold And Bloody
Russia in the 19th century
What was the Russian society like during the last Tsars domination?
In the beginning of the 19th century Russia was very underdeveloped. As well social as economic as politic the country stayed behind on Europe.
The power was in hands of one person: the Tsar. Assisted by dependent bureaucrats he reigned over his country. He had absolute power and stayed above every law. The Tsar abused this autocracy by banishing (to Siberia) everyone who not pleased him and was his politic opponent. A radical, positive result of that was that he constructed the Siberian railway; an important piece of infrastructure. The death of Tsar Nicolas the 1st was for many people a blessing. They where hoping of better times with his successor Tsar Alexander the 2nd. The new Tsar created high expectations those he promised to prove. An important element in that was, that he insisted on relaxation of the ruling censure and the supervision of the police. Under his authority the jurisdiction became reformed and the military compulsory he curtailed from 25 years to 15 years. The most important reform was however the abolition of bondage. In 1861 the emancipation-edict turned up: a book consist of 300 pages in which the freedom of the farmers was certified.
Alexander the 2nd proved a lot of his beautiful promises and the society was really gone on before. The big mistake he made was that he also held on the bureaucracy. The nation had tasted the freedom and wanted to carry this on.
The regime became harder as reaction on all sorts of revolutionary eruptions. The police solved the rows. The hard reactions of one group brought a hard contra-reaction of the other group about. By all these reforms went the old Russia down, but the new Russia wasn’t there yet. The Tsar tried to let it by this, but the nation wanted social changes and equality. All good changes that Alexander the 2nd brought for his nation, turned now against him.
Economically seen was Russia an agrarian country. Everything what there was of business and industry was in hands of people with a non-Russian nationality, especially Jews. The industrialization set going carefully, but stayed beyond the reach of the most inhabitants. There was a poignant poverty. Of the population was 95 % tenant farmer. Till 1861 everyone of them were serfs of their landlord. They farmed the land of the elite and had practically no rights. Almost everyone was an illiterate and stayed beyond every intellectual development.
How did the alteration start?
In 1904 Russia was involved in a war against Japan. In the country’s temper to expansion, Russia conformed to the Middle East. Tsar Nicolas called the Japanese ‘monkeys’. It was an enormous slap, when the Russians suffered overwhelming defeats. The underrated Japanese proved in practice to be superior in military- and navy operations. This was not so much owed on the fact that the Japanese commanders were strategic better than their Russian colleagues, as well on the fact that they were unanimous in their military strategies, in contrast with the Russians. After the end of the war with Japan arose there general suspensions and unrest spread everywhere on the country and in St. Petersburg was a labour soviet established. The war cost capitals while the Russian nation starved.
What happened during the revolution of 1905?
The year 1905 went trough its first days a drama: Bloody Sunday. Labours went to the winter palace of the Tsar to offer him a manifest in which they asked for better working circumstances and higher wages . On their way many others connected with them and by the time they were at the palace a huge crowd was formed. That huge crowd wasn’t so peace-loving as in the beginning of their journey. Squares were surrounded and the army had to save the repose: but the army didn’t succeed. They were shooting at the crowd to disperse them, they wounded and killed many rebels. The chaos and unbelief about the manner of the government made the people angry and rebellious. At the beginning of May the labours of a textile works took the initiative to begin a strike. To try to achieve their demands. Later on political objectives came along with their demands. The strike was called of after 72 days; the strikers didn’t had income and had to go back to work to supported life. At first the revolution of 1905 declined aimless. There was no organization and the farmers and the labours took care of little rows and strikes. Nobody knows how the people should be satisfied. In October the workers of a factory in Moscow struck once again massive. This time the strike was taken over rapidly by other factory workers and afterwards also by the railway workers. The railway workers had the power to lay within a couple weeks the complete net quietly. A minister saved the country, those realised that it would be impossible to suffocate the disorder with violence at that moment. He turned off on paper political master-piece, in what he pleaded for civil rights for the people, freedom of opinion expression and printing-press, freedom of assembly, but give especially the legislature to the ‘doema’: a constitution. On 30 October 1905 tsar Nicolas II signed after many doubts the boasted October manifest. Reversal in the history, because the tsar stood for the first time something from its absolute power to the people. After that time were there still what small insurrections, but there no longer real interview became to data. Most of the people were satisfied with the new manifest and hoped that the tsar would stick to. Still one time blazed the fight high on in Moscow, and mid- December of that year. 150,000 workers decided and armed venture insurrection, supported by again the railway workers.
The tsar decided this time immediately and let fire open on the strikers. By the end of December delivered himself the last strikers. The city existed only still from smoking rubbish-heaps and thousands had perished, taken or banished. That was the end of the revolution of 1905. But the Russian people was no longer that was by the beginning of the year. The proletariat had the people to learn fight and learns rise for their rights.
How was it in Russia on the eve of the revolution?
How did the February revolution go?
Saint-Petersburg, February 1917:
Of the coldest winters of Russia runs at its end, but also the patience of the population. The women are in the majority in the city. Men and sons have left to the front to fight. The women are angry. They have cooperated for minimum remunerations in the factories for the war industry. The labour rebellious present had been touched, there was too little food and remunerations they could not manage. Strikes caused however massive dismissals and made the situation hopeless. In large anger they has run on the street. They know not well how the tide to turn. There the socialist leaders come into operation. The tram staff strikes and that causes a general strike. Everywhere leaven it and stoke the revolutionaries disorder. The number to babble grows terrifying rapidly. The tsar is on his headquarter in Mogilev and refuses to return to the capital. He orders all disorder stop by dispatch immediately, what that also costs. Him is with great force asked a new democratic accept government, but he refuses. Thousands and once more thousands of worker men and - women pass through the streets. Soldiers surround the squares, armed heavily. Initial shooting they in air, to deter people the approaching mass. If people with banners with slogans become at threatening to shoot they also home. Dozens of the dead peoples fall, what encourages anger only still but more. Hatred bursts unrestrained loose and it is bludgeoned in blind person anger in wild gone agents. One storms Kresti-jail and delivers political the prisoners. Barracks full prove be suddenly sensitive cried of the Bolsheviks and let their orders abruptly left lie. The commander can no longer count on its soldiers. The tsar however attracts himself nothing of all begging dispatches. He defies the need destiny and dissolves the doema!
In the first half of the nineteenth century Russia was a weak and backward area. The tsars governed the hard way and the population wants change. The social situation was for many piteous. By the high percentage illiteracy of the population its pace could the autocracy go. Tsar Nicolas I did not give. Its continuator, Alexander II, the population gave for the first time the free support. The nation had tasted the freedom and wanted to carry this on. The tsar had tried to improve it however already with the social position of many and he set out it old, strict regime. By means of the populism want one in a peaceful manner socialism introduce, but then this did not appear work used they terrorism. Alexander II were assassinated, but instead of an improvement its continuator returned Alexander III to the government of Nicolas I. Terrorism had no more development. The revolutionary movements weaknesses because of this initially finished. Then some people came into contact with the Marxism and were they about this way enthusiastic that they wanted to create the Utopia of Karl Marx. Political trends arose and sought their place and point of view in the society. How different their trade manner and lying behind reasons were also, concerning one aspect all parties it were once: the autocracy had be abolished. By consultation one however and in 1905, did not come far most severe the bomb and break a revolution. The tsarism could themselves maintain however and got it for saying. The doema, a so-called representation of the people, required a large responsibility. The tsar refused however. In the following years the dissatisfaction of the people grew more and more. Secret oppositions met to confer and prepared a coup. February 1917. Russia has been torn and has been shocked. They have shown what she has in its top. Uncountable people with enthusiastic ideals try confused some create overview in the complex events of the previous days. They have been exhausted, but full hope.
Russia is ready for the large rotation.
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