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Millennium goals

Beoordeling 6.4
Foto van een scholier
  • Spreekbeurt door een scholier
  • 4e klas vwo | 2120 woorden
  • 15 november 2007
  • 5 keer beoordeeld
Cijfer 6.4
5 keer beoordeeld

Good evening everyone,
Today I am presenting a speech about the millennium goals.
There are eight goals:
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development

We are going to talk about goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability.

First of all we need to know what millennium goals are.
Why do we have the millennium goals?
Well, millennium goals , also known as MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) represent a global partnership that has grown from the commitments and targets established at the world summits of the 1990s. These areas are the world's main development challenges which need to be realised otherwise our world will be in great danger. The MDGs promote poverty reduction, education, maternal health, gender equality, and aim at combating child mortality, AIDS and other diseases.
Set for the year 2015, the MDGs are an agreed set of goals that can be achieved if all actors work together and do their part. Poor countries have pledged to govern better, and invest in their people through health care and education. Rich countries have pledged to support them, through aid, debt relief, and fairer trade.

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals to be achieved by 2015 that respond to the world's main development challenges. The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations-and signed by 147 heads of state and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000.

What is the UNDP and how is it helping?
UNDP is working with a wide range of partners to help create coalitions for change to support the goals at global, regional and national levels, to benchmark progress towards them, and to help countries to build the institutional capacity, policies and programmes needed to achieve the MDGs.

Guided by the UN Core Strategy, UNDP's work on the MDGs focuses on coordinating global and local efforts that:
Campaign and mobilise for the MDGs through communication;
Share the best strategies for meeting the MDGs in terms of new practices, policy and institutional reforms, means of policy implementation, and evaluation of financing options;
Monitor and report progress towards the MDGs; and
Support governments in realizing the MDGs by looking at the local circumstances and challenges.

We have looked at goal number 7, because it concerns Suriname’s future directly and if we do not pay attention to this area our future generations will face severe problems with finding sound drinking water.

Targets of goal 7 are:
Target 1: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources
Target 2: Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water
Target 3: Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020

According to the targets we will talk about the second target: reduce by half proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water.
Goal 7 : Ensure Environmental Sustainability
What has been achieved already?
Proportion of households with access to safe drinking water has been improving due to significant allocation of resources to water resources, which had resulted into the establishment of many dams and water reservoirs in the country.
Proportion of households with access to basic sanitation improved from 56.5 % in 1990 to 72 % in 2003.
What kind of problems are there?
Man has always depended upon a source of fresh water for his survival. Early Egyptian, Babylonian, and Greek cultures were located near rivers or in river valleys. The river served not only as a source of fresh water but also as a means of disposing of waste products. By the eighteenth century in England and in Europe rivers near large population centres were polluted. The human population explosion and the growth of industry over the past 150 years has now caused a serious world-wide water-pollution problem. At the present time, most of the rivers and lakes of the world are already polluted or at least threatened with human waste products.
A human could theoretically exist on as little as oil-half gallon of water per day although at the present time each man, woman, and child in the United States, directly or indirectly, "uses" 1900 gallons of water per day. So that is too much.

Over 97 percent of the world's water is sea water and an additional 2 percent is tied up in polar ice caps. This means that all of the rivers, streams, lakes, and reservoirs in the world constitute only one percent of the earth's water. As population increases and industry grows, our supply of fresh water per person rapidly diminishes. This is a serious problem and threat to the existence of mankind.
The water used by agriculture and industry is returned to streams, lakes, and the ocean often with various pollutants present. These pollutants may contain metallic salts like mercury, arsenic, copper, and lead, as well as nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates. Organic pesticides such as DDT are also discharged into our water systems. In rivers and streams which are still capable of supporting aquatic life, food chains sometimes tend to have certain poisonous materials such as mercury and pesticide poisons. This presents a real danger to humans who, at the end of the food chain, consume the fish. Many species of birds and other animals are similarly threatened.
Many rivers and lakes are becoming so polluted with these contaminants’ that they are considered to be "dead." In cases like Lake Erie, the world's thirteenth largest body of fresh water, even decades of strict enforcement of antipollution policies may not return the water to its natural state. Lake Erie is clear example then of water pollution because all the fish in this lake are poisonous.
Another problem which we have is the following and this specifically deals with the developing countries.
We urgently need to resolve the growing water and sanitation crisis that causes nearly two million child deaths every year. This has also been concluded by the 2006 Human Development Report.
Across much of the developing world, unclean water is an immeasurably greater threat to human security than violent conflict.
Each year 1.8 million children die from diarrhoea that could be prevented with access to clean water and a toilet; 443 million school days are lost to water-related illnesses; and almost 50 percent of all people in developing countries are suffering at any given time from a health problem caused by a lack of water and sanitation. To add to these human costs, the crisis in water and sanitation holds back economic growth.

Delivering clean water, removing waste water, and providing sanitation are three of the most basic foundations for human progress, But 1.1 billion people do not have access to water, and 2.6 billion do not have access to sanitation.
‘Not having access to clean water means that people will be poor. It means that people walk more than one kilometre to the nearest source of clean water for drinking, that they collect water from drains, ditches or streams that might be infected with bacteria that can cause severe illness and death.
And the poorer you are, the more you pay for clean water. The poorest households of El Salvador, Jamaica and Nicaragua spend on average over 10 percent of their income on water. In the United Kingdom, spending three percent of family income on water is considered the hardship threshold.

There are huge disparities in the prices that people pay for water. People living in urban slums typically pay 5-10 times more per litre than people living in high-income areas. And people living in the poorest parts of cities like Accra and Manila pay more than the residents of London, New York and Paris.
One-third of all people without access to water fall below the $1-a-day absolute poverty threshold. Another third live on no more than $2 a day. In sanitation, the poorest two-fifths of households in the world account for more than half the global deficit, according to the 2006 HDR. These figures are not evidence of causation—people might lack water and sanitation because they are poor, or they might be poor because they lack water and sanitation—but the numbers do signal a strong two-way relationship between income poverty and deprivation in access to water.

Beyond the household
The poor need ‘water for life’—for drinking, cooking and washing—as well as water to grow food and earn a living. Yet poor farmers face a potentially catastrophic water crisis from the combination of climate change and competition for scarce water resources.
The great majority of the world’s malnourished people—estimated now at 830 million—are small farmers, herders, and farm labourers. Climate change threatens to intensify their water insecurity on an unparalleled scale, with parts of sub-Saharan Africa facing crop losses of up to 25 percent. At the same time, competition over water to produce food is escalating at an alarming rate in developing countries, with political and economic power, not concern for poverty, acting as the driving force.
Shoring up the rights of the rural poor, increasing their access to irrigation and new technology and helping them adapt to inevitable climate change will be imperative to ward off disaster.
Faced with these challenges, need for increasing cooperation across national borders to ensure water security for the poor is more tangible than ever, as by 2025, over three billion people could be living in countries under water stress.
Managing shared water can be a force for peace or for conflict, but it is politics that will decide which course is chosen.
History shows the crisis can be fixed
Just over 100 years ago, infant mortality rates in Washington, DC, were twice what they are today in sub-Saharan Africa, write the authors. Water-borne diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery and typhoid fever accounted for 1 in 10 deaths in US cities in the late 19th century, with children the primary victims.
In the UK and elsewhere, people were getting wealthier through the industrial revolution, but not healthier. The poor moved from rural to urban areas to benefit from the boom while overwhelmed cities turned into lethal open-air sewers, and epidemics of typhoid and cholera regularly swept through cities like New Orleans and New York.

In the hot summer of 1858, the UK Parliament was forced to temporarily close during what became known as ‘The Great Stink,’ caused by sewerage flowing into the river Thames. For the rich, it was a nuisance. For the poor, who got their drinking water from the river, it was a killer.
By the end of the 19th century, governments recognized that the diseases associated with water and sanitation could not be contained in the cities’ poor tenements; it was in the greater public’s interest to take action. In the UK, US and elsewhere, massive investments were made in effective sewerage systems and the purification of water supplies to great effect. No other period in US history, for example, has witnessed such rapid declines in mortality rates.
This change reflected a rare instance in history where a major social ill was successfully resolved. And it could happen again. Resolving the water and sanitation crisis could be the next great leap forward for mankind. We urgently need history to repeat itself—this time in developing countries.
How about water crisis in Suriname?
We all know that water is one of the most important facilities for us and you need it for different things. For example: cooking, drinking, washing, and for many other things you need water. We can live longer without food but if we don’t have drinking water for 48 hours we die. Conclusion: water is and has always been important for the community of Suriname.
But what do we see here is Suriname. So many rivers or creeks are polluted. Here, in Suriname they throw cars, food, bottles and many other things into the water. And the question is: ”What action is the government of Suriname against water pollution?”. The answer to this question is: nothing. If we are talking about “our” country, we should keep our area clean. And we should be the people whose job it is to keep our area clean. Actually water pollution is one of the main things we are supposed to take care of. But you see for yourselves no one actually cares about it. Well I do, so don’t throw things into the water if you don’t need it. There is always another way to recycle it or give it to a store maybe. Of course Suriname is not the only country where it happens, it happens everywhere. So if we really want Suriname to become a better country we should keep our country clean. Meaning: No water pollution


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