Hoe kies jij een studie?

Daar zijn wij benieuwd naar. Vul onze vragenlijst in en bepaal zelf wat voor beloning je daarvoor wilt krijgen! Meedoen duurt ongeveer 7 minuten.

Meedoen

Australië

Beoordeling 5.8
Foto van een scholier
  • Sectorwerkstuk door een scholier
  • 6e klas aso | 11147 woorden
  • 29 mei 2006
  • 41 keer beoordeeld
Cijfer 5.8
41 keer beoordeeld

ADVERTENTIE
Overweeg jij om Politicologie te gaan studeren? Meld je nu aan vóór 1 mei!

Misschien is de studie Politicologie wel wat voor jou! Tijdens deze bachelor ga je aan de slag met grote en kleine vraagstukken en bestudeer je politieke machtsverhoudingen. Wil jij erachter komen of deze studie bij je past? Stel al je vragen aan student Wouter. 

Meer informatie
Australia Motto: none (formerly Advance Australia) Anthem: Advance Australia Fair Capital Canberra
Largest city
Sydney Official languages English Government • Queen • Governor-General • Prime Minister
Const. monarchy
Elizabeth II
Michael Jeffery
John Howard Independence • Constitution Act • Statute of Westminster • Australia Act
From the UK: 1 January 1901
11 December 1931
3 March 1986 GDP (PPP) • Total • Per capita 2003 estimate $611 billion (16th) $31,020 (13th) Currency

Dollar (AUD) Internet TLD .au Origin and history of the name The name Australia is derived from the Latin australis, meaning southern. Legends of an "unknown southern land" (terra australis incognita) date back to the Roman times and were commonplace in mediæval geography, but they were not based on any actual knowledge of the continent. The Dutch adjectival form Australische ("Australian," in the sense of "southern") was used by Dutch officials in Batavia to refer to the newly discovered land to the south as early as 1638. The first English language writer to use the word "Australia" was Alexander Dalrymple in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean, published in 1771. He used the term to refer to the entire South Pacific region, not specifically to the Australian continent. In 1793, George Shaw and Sir James Smith published Zoology and Botany of New Holland, in which they wrote of "the vast island, or rather continent, of Australia, Australasia or New Holland." View of Port Jackson, taken from the South Head, from A Voyage to Terra Australis. Sydney was established on this site. The name "Australia" was popularised by the 1814 work A Voyage to Terra Australis by the navigator Matthew Flinders. Despite its title, which reflected the view of the Admiralty, Flinders used the word "Australia" in the book, which was widely read and gave the term general currency. Governor Lachlan Macquarie of New South Wales subsequently used the word in his dispatches to England. In 1817 he recommended that it be officially adopted. In 1824, the British Admiralty finally accepted that the continent should be known officially as Australia. History of Australia Lieutenant James Cook charted the East coast of Australia on HM Bark Endeavour, claiming the land for Britain in 1770. This replica was built in Fremantle in 1988 for Australia's bicentenary. The first human habitation of Australia is estimated to have occurred between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago. The first Australians were the ancestors of the current Indigenous Australians; they arrived via land bridges and short sea-crossings from present-day Southeast Asia. Most of these people were hunter-gatherers, with a complex oral culture and spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, inhabited the Torres Strait Islands and parts of far-north Queensland; they possess distinct cultural practices and practised subsistence agriculture. The first undisputed recorded European sighting of the Australian continent was made by the Dutch navigator Willem Jansz, who sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in 1606. During the 17th century, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines of what they called New Holland, but made no attempt at settlement. In 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast of Australia, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Britain. The expedition's discoveries provided impetus for the establishment of a penal colony there following the loss of the American colonies that had previously filled that role. Port Arthur, Tasmania was Australia's largest penal colony. The British Crown Colony of New South Wales started with the establishment of a settlement at Port Jackson by Captain Arthur Phillip on 26 January 1788. This date was later to become Australia's national day, Australia Day. Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, was settled in 1803 and became a separate colony in 1825. Britain formally claimed the western part of Australia in 1829. Separate colonies were created from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. The Northern Territory (NT) was founded in 1863 as part of the Province of South Australia. Victoria and South Australia were founded as "free colonies"—that is, they were never penal colonies, although the former did receive some convicts from Tasmania. Western Australia was also founded "free", but later accepted transported convicts due to an acute labour shortage. The transportation of convicts to Australia was phased out between 1840 and 1868. The Indigenous Australian population, estimated at about 350,000 at the time of European settlement, declined steeply for 150 years following settlement, mainly because of infectious disease, and forced migration, the removal of children and other colonial government policies that by today's understanding could be considered to constitute genocide. Following the 1967 referendum, the Federal government gained the power to implement policies and make laws with respect to Aborigines. Traditional ownership of land—native title—was not recognised until the High Court case Mabo v Queensland (No 2) overturned the notion of Australia as terra nullius at the time of European occupation. The Last Post is played at an ANZAC Day ceremony in Port Melbourne, Victoria, 25 April 2005. Ceremonies such as this are held in virtually every suburb and town in Australia. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, and the Eureka Stockade rebellion in 1854 was an early expression of nationalist sentiment. Between 1855 and 1890, the six colonies individually gained responsible government, managing most of their own affairs while remaining part of the British Empire. The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs, defence and international shipping. On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies was achieved after a decade of planning, consultation and voting, and the Commonwealth of Australia was born, as a Dominion of the British Empire. The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) was formed from New South Wales in 1911 to provide a location for the proposed new federal capital of Canberra (Melbourne was the capital from 1901 to 1927). The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South Australian government to the Commonwealth in 1911. Australia willingly participated in World War I;[4] many Australians regard the defeat of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) at Gallipoli as the birth of the nation—its first major military action. Much like Gallipoli the Kokoda Track Campaign is regarded by many as a nation defining battle from World War II. The Statute of Westminster 1931 formally ended most of the constitutional links between Australia and Britain, but Australia did not adopt the Statute until 1942. The shock of Britain's defeat in Asia in 1942 and the threat of Japanese invasion caused Australia to turn to the United States as a new ally and protector. Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military ally of the US under the auspices of the ANZUS treaty. After World War II, Australia encouraged mass immigration from Europe, and since the 1970s and the abolition of the White Australia policy from Asia and other parts of the world; radically transforming Australia's demography, culture and image of itself. The final constitutional ties between Australia and Britain ended in 1986 with the passing of the Australia Act 1986, ending any British role in the Australian States, and ending judicial appeals to the UK Privy Council. Although Australian voters rejected a move to become a republic in 1999 by a 55% majority, Australia's links to its British past are increasingly tenuous. Since the election of the Whitlam Government in 1972, there has been an increasing focus on the nation's future as a part of the Asia-Pacific region. Politics New Parliament House in Canberra was opened in 1988 replacing the provisional Parliament House building opened in 1927. The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional monarchy and has a parliamentary system of government. Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position as Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. The Queen is nominally represented by the Governor-General; although the Constitution gives extensive executive powers to the Governor-General, these are normally exercised only on the advice of the Prime Minister. The most notable exercise of the Governor-General's reserve powers outside the Prime Minister's direction was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975. There are three branches of government. • The legislature: the Commonwealth Parliament, comprising the Queen, the Senate, and the House of Representatives; the Queen is represented by the Governor-General, who in practice exercises little or no power over the Parliament. • The executive: the Federal Executive Council (the Governor-General as advised by the executive councillors); in practice, the councillors are the prime minister and ministers of state, whose advice the Governor-General accepts, with rare exceptions. • The judiciary: the High Court of Australia and other federal courts. The State courts became formally independent from the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council when the Australia Act was passed in 1986. The bicameral Commonwealth Parliament consists of the Queen, the Senate (the upper house) of 76 senators, and a House of Representatives (the lower house) of 150 members. Members of the lower house are elected from single-member constituencies, commonly known as 'electorates' or 'seats'. Seats in the House of Representatives are allocated to states on the basis of population. In the Senate, each state, regardless of population, is represented by 12 senators, with the ACT and the NT each electing two. Elections for both chambers are held every three years; typically only half of the Senate seats are put to each election, because senators have overlapping six-year terms. The party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms Government, with its leader becoming Prime Minister. There are three major political parties: the Labor Party, the Liberal Party and the National Party. Independent members and several minor parties—including the Greens, Family First and the Australian Democrats—have achieved representation in Australian parliaments, mostly in upper houses, although their influence has been marginal. Since the 1996 election, the Liberal/National Coalition led by the Prime Minister, John Howard, has been in power in Canberra. In the 2004 election, the Coalition won control of the Senate, the first time that a party (or coalition of governing parties) has done so while in government in more than 20 years. The Labor Party is in power in every state and territory. Voting is compulsory in each state and territory and at the federal level. Australian states and territories States and territories of Australia

Australia consists of six states and several territories. The states are New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia. The two mainland territories are the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT); the federal government administers a separate area within New South Wales, the Jervis Bay Territory, as a naval base and sea port for the national capital. In most respects, the territories function similarly to the states, but the Commonwealth Parliament can override any legislation of their parliaments. By contrast, federal legislation overrides state legislation only with respect to certain areas as set out in Section 51 of the Constitution; all residual legislative powers are retained by the state parliaments, including powers over hospitals, education, police, the judiciary, roads, public transport and local government. Each state and territory has its own legislature (unicameral in the case of the Northern Territory, the ACT and Queensland, and bicameral in the remaining states). The lower house is known as the Legislative Assembly (House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania) and the upper house the Legislative Council. The heads of the governments in each state and territory are called premiers and chief ministers, respectively. The Queen is represented in each state by a governor; an administrator in the Northern Territory, and the Governor-General in the ACT, have analogous roles. Australia has several inhabited external territories: Norfolk Island, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and several largely uninhabited external territories: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands and the Australian Antarctic Territory. Cities Sydney Australia's premier city is the oldest settlement in Australia, the economic powerhouse of the nation and the country's capital in everything but name. Built on the shores of the stunning Port Jackson, you would have to die and go to heaven before you see a more spectacular setting for a city. It's a vital, self-regarding metropolis, exuding both a devil-may-care urbanity and a slavish obsession with global fads. The Olympic Games, held in Sydney in 2000, confirmed the city's reputation as a civilised, fun-loving and friendly place to be. Keep in mind that to prove you've been in Australia, you'll have to take a photo of the Sydney Opera House, with the Sydney Harbour Bridge in the background. The ability to pronounce Bondi will add an extra dash of authenticity. Melbourne Australia's second city is a place of contradictions and hidden charms. A leafy, bayside community on the 'upside-down', brown Yarra River, it is open minded yet suburban, cultivated yet football crazy, conservative yet a haeven for the avant-garde. Visitors come for its shopping, restaurants, nightlife and sporting calendar, encouraging many Melburnians to believe that they live in one of the most civilised cities in the world. Some pleasant excursions from Melbourne include Phillip Island, with its fairy penguins, the pristine Wilsons Promontory and the Great Ocean Road. Canberra Canberra is a picturesque 20th-century creation on the banks of Lake Burley Griffin that has struggled to establish itself as the focus of Australia's national history, pride and identity. Canberra has long been perceived as the 'fat cat' of Australian cities, a town of politicians and bureaucrats living off the hard work of their countryfolk. Step outside the Parliamentary Triangle and you'll soon find it isn't true. Canberra has grown from a Federation baby into an adult city with all the problems and delights that being a grown-up brings. Sights to see include the new Parliament House and the National Museum of Australia. Perth Perth, the capital of Western Australia, is a vibrant and modern city pleasantly sited on the Swan and Canning rivers, with the cerulean Indian Ocean to the west (providing some fine beaches) and the ancient Darling Ranges to the east. It claims to be the sunniest state capital in Australia, though more striking is its isolation from the rest of the country. Try to visit the historical port town of Fremantle.
Cairns Cairns is the tourist 'capital' of the Far North and one of Australia's top travellers' destinations. Not long ago, it was just a sleepy tropical backwater. Unfortunately, much of its allure and tropical languor has vanished amid the rapid growth of tourist infrastructure, but it is still one of the best bases for exploring the riches of tropical Queensland. From Cairns, you can arrange trips to the Great Barrier Reef, Green Island and Fitzroy Island, the beautiful Atherton Tableland, the market town of Kuranda, the string of enchanting beaches stretching 50km (30mi) north to Port Douglas, and the spectacular rainforest and coastal scenery of Cape Tribulation and the Daintree River. Darwin The 'capital' of northern Australia is closer to Jakarta than it is to Sydney, and closer to Singapore than it is to Melbourne, so it's no surprise that it looks outward to Asia as much as it looks inland to the rest of Australia. This proximity and familiarity with Australia's northern neighbours is reflected in the town's relaxed, cosmopolitan, tropical atmosphere. Nearby Kakadu National Park shouldn't be missed. Uluru (Ayers Rock) Uluru is a site of deep cultural significance to the local Anangu Aboriginals and the most famous icon of the Australian outback. A pilgrimage to Uluru and the coronary-inducing scramble to the top was an entrenched Australian ritual, but the Aboriginal owners would prefer visitors not to climb the rock and many visitors are now respecting their wishes. The 3.6km long rock rises a towering 348m from the pancake-flat surrounding scrub, smack in the middle of the country, and is especially impressive at dawn and sunset when the red rock spectacularly changes hue. There are walks around the base of the rock which pass caves, rock art and sacred Aboriginal sites. Nearby Kata Tjuta (the Olgas), 32km west of Uluru, are equally impressive monoliths and Mt Olga is actually much higher than Uluru. The Valley of the Winds is a worthy 6km walking circuit. Brisbane Brisbane is Australia's third largest city and the state capital of Queensland. Not so long ago, the rest of Australia considered it little more than an overgrown country town, but it has shirked off this unwelcome reputation to become one of the country's most progressive centres. Since playing host to a string of major international events in the 80s, including the 1982 Commonwealth Games and Expo 88, Brisbane has developed into a lively, world-wise city with several interesting districts, a good street cafe scene, a great riverside park, a busy cultural calendar and decent nightlife. Adelaide When the early colonists began building Adelaide they built with stone, constructing a solid, dignified city that is civilised and calm in a way that no other Australian state capital can match. The solidity goes further than architecture, for Adelaide was once regarded as a city of wowsers (read: puritan spoilsports) and was renowned chiefly for its disproportionately large number of churches. These days the churches are outnumbered by pubs and nightclubs, and there is no denying that the city has a superb setting - the centre is surrounded by green parkland, and the metropolitan area is bound by the hills of the Mt Lofty Ranges and the waters of the Gulf St Vincent. Nearby is the Barossa Valley wine region.
Hobart Hobart is Australia's southernmost capital city. The fact that it is also the smallest (population 129,000) is a key to its particular charm. A riverside city with a busy harbour, its mountain backdrop offers fine views over the compact suburbs below. Its beautiful Georgian buildings (even the harbourside warehouses are picturesque), relaxed atmosphere, numerous parks and attractive homes make Hobart one of the most enjoyable and engaging of Australia's cities. Regarded as conservative and provincial by many mainlanders, Hobart has a thriving arts and crafts scene and a real sense of history and for walking, eating and just soaking in the atmosphere it can't be better. Foreign relations and military Over recent decades, Australia's foreign relations have been driven by a close association with the United States, through the ANZUS pact and by a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific, particularly through ASEAN and the Pacific Islands Forum. In 2005 Australia secured an inaugural seat at the East Asia Summit following its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation. Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, in which the Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for co-operation. Much of Australia's diplomatic energy is focused on international trade liberalisation. Australia led the formation of the Cairns Group and APEC, and is a member of the OECD and the WTO. Australia has pursued several major bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the US–Australia Free Trade Agreement. Australia is a founding member of the United Nations, and maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries receive assistance. The 2005–06 budget provides A$2.5bn for development assistance; as a percentage of GDP, this contribution is less than that of the UN Millennium Development Goals. Australia's armed forces—the Australian Defence Force (ADF)—comprise the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army, and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). All branches of the ADF have been involved in UN and regional peacekeeping (most recently in East Timor, the Solomon Islands and Sudan), disaster relief, and armed conflict, including the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. The government appoints the chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services; the current chief is Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston. In 2005–06, the defence budget is A$17.5bn. Geography and climate Climatic zones in Australia. Australia's 7,686,850 km² landmass is on the Indo-Australian Plate. Surrounded by the Indian, Southern and Pacific oceans, Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas. Australia has a total 25,760 km of coastline and claims an extensive Exclusive Economic Zone of 8,148,250 km² (excluding the Australian Antarctic Territory). Climate is highly influenced by ocean currents, including the El Niño southern oscillation, which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low pressure system that produces cyclones in northern Australia. By far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid. Australia is the driest inhabited continent, the flattest, and has the oldest and least fertile soils. Only the south-east and south-west corners of the continent have a temperate climate. The northern part of the country, with a tropical climate, has a vegetation consisting of rainforest, woodland, grassland and desert. The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef, lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000 km. The world's two largest monoliths are located in Australia, Mount Augustus in Western Australia is the largest and Uluru in central Australia is the second largest. At 2,228 m, Mount Kosciuszko on the Great Dividing Range is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland, although Mawson Peak on the remote Australian territory of Heard Island is taller at 2,745 m. Flora and fauna The Tammar Wallaby is an Australian marsupial. The genome of the wallaby is currently being sequenced; when the sequencing is completed, it will be a major contribution to marsupial biology. Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it covers a diverse range of habitats, from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests. Because of the great age and consequent low levels of fertility of the continent, its extremely variable weather patterns, and its long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique and diverse. About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic. Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introduced plant and animal species. The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is a legal framework used for the protection of threatened species. Numerous protected areas have been created to protect and preserve Australia's unique ecosystems, 64 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention, and 16 World Heritage Sites have been established. Australia was ranked 13th in the World on the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index. Most Australian plant species are evergreen and many are adapted to fire and drought, including the eucalypts and acacias. Australia has a rich variety of endemic legume species that thrive in nutrient-poor soils because of their symbiosis with Rhizobia bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi. Well-known Australian fauna include monotremes (the platypus and echidna), and a host of marsupials, including the koala, kangaroo, wombat, and birds such as the emu, cockatoo, and kookaburra. The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people that traded with Indigenous Australians around 4000 BCE. Many plant and animal species became extinct soon after human settlement, including the Australian megafauna; many more have become extinct since European settlement, among them the Thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger). Economy Melbourne's population is approximately 3.5 million, the second largest in Australia

Australia has a prosperous, Western-style mixed economy, with a per capita GDP slightly higher than those of the UK, Germany and France. The country was ranked third in the United Nations' 2005 Human Development Index and sixth in The Economist worldwide quality-of-life index 2005. In recent years, the Australian economy has been resilient in the face of global economic downturn. Rising output in the domestic economy has been offsetting the global slump, and business and consumer confidence remains robust. Australia's emphasis on reform is another key factor behind the economy's strength. In the 1980s, the Labor Party, led by Prime Minister Bob Hawke and Treasurer Paul Keating, started the process of modernising the Australian economy by floating the Australian dollar in 1983, and deregulating the financial system. Since 1996, the Howard government has continued the process of micro-economic reform, including the partial deregulation of the labour market and the privatisation of state-owned businesses, most notably in the telecommunications industry. Substantial reform of the indirect tax system was achieved in July 2000 with the introduction of a 10% Goods and Services Tax, which has slightly reduced the heavy reliance on personal and company income tax that still characterises Australia's tax system. The Australian economy has not suffered a recession since the early 1990s. As of July 2005, unemployment was 5.0% with 10,030,300 persons employed. The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, comprises 69% of GDP. Agriculture and natural-resources represent only 3% and 5% of GDP, respectively, but contribute substantially to Australia's export performance. Australia's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States, South Korea and New Zealand. Areas of concern to some economists include the chronically high current account deficit and also high levels of net foreign debt. Demographics Most Australians live in urban areas; Sydney is the most populous city in Australia. Most of the estimated 20.4 million Australians are descended from 19th- and 20th-century immigrants, the majority from Britain and Ireland. Australia's population has quadrupled since the end of World War I, spurred by an ambitious immigration program. In 2001, the five largest groups of the 27.4% of Australians who were born overseas were from the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Italy, Vietnam and China. Following the abolition of the White Australia policy, numerous government initiatives have been established to encourage and promote racial harmony based on a policy of multiculturalism. Australia’s population has increased by about 60 times since European settlement. The self-declared indigenous population—including Torres Strait Islanders, who are of Melanesian descent—was 410,003 (2.2% of the total population) in 2001, a significant increase from the 1977 census, which showed an indigenous population of 115,953. Indigenous Australians have higher rates of imprisonment and unemployment, lower levels of education and life expectancies for males and females that are 17 years lower than those of other Australians. Perceived racial inequality is an ongoing political and human rights issue for Australians. In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. A large number of Australians (759,849 for the period 2002–03) live outside their home country. Australia has maintained one of the most active immigration programs in the world to boost population growth. Most immigrants are skilled; the quota includes categories for family members and refugees. English is the official language, and is spoken and written in a distinct variety known as Australian English. According to the 2001 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for around 80% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Chinese (2.1%), Italian (1.9%) and Greek (1.4%). A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual. It is believed that there were between 200 and 300 Australian Aboriginal languages at the time of first European contact. Only about 70 of these languages have survived, and all but 20 of these are now endangered. An indigenous language remains the main language for about 50,000 (0.02%) people. Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 6,500 deaf people. The Australian Constitution guarantees the separation of church and state; there is no state religion. The 2001 census identified that 68% of Australians call themselves Christian: 27% identifying themselves as Roman Catholic and 21% as Anglican. Five per cent of Australians identify themselves as followers of non-Christian religions, and 26% as non-religious. Like many Western countries, the level of active participation in church worship is much lower than this; weekly attendance at church services is about 1.5 million, about 7.5% of the population. School attendance is compulsory throughout Australia between the ages of 6–15 years (16 years in South Australia and Tasmania), contributing to an adult literacy rate that is assumed to be 99%. Government grants have supported the establishment of Australia's 38 universities, and although several private universities have been established, the majority receive government funding. There is a state-based system of vocational training colleges, known as TAFE Institutes, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople. Approximately 58% of Australians between the ages of 25 and 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications. Culture Golden Summer, Eaglemont by Arthur Streeton (1889) is an early example of the rich tradition of Australian landscape painting. The primary basis of Australian culture up until the mid-20th century was Anglo-Celtic, although distinctive Australian features had been evolving from the environment and indigenous culture. Over the past 50 years, Australian culture has been strongly influenced by American popular culture (particularly television and cinema), large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking countries, and Australia's Asian neighbours. Australia has a long history of visual arts, starting with the cave and bark paintings of its indigenous peoples. From the time of European settlement, a common theme in Australian art has been the Australian landscape, seen in the works of Arthur Streeton, Arthur Boyd and Albert Namatjira, among others. The traditions of indigenous Australians are largely transmitted orally and are closely tied to ceremony and the telling of the stories of the Dreamtime. Australian Aboriginal music, dance and art have a palpable influence on contemporary Australian visual and performing arts. Australia has an active tradition of music, ballet and theatre; many of its performing arts companies receive public funding through the federal government's Australia Council. There is a symphony orchestra in each capital city, and a national opera company, Opera Australia, first made prominent by the renowned diva Dame Joan Sutherland; Australian music includes classical, jazz, and many popular music genres. Australian literature has also been influenced by the landscape; the works of writers such as Banjo Paterson and Henry Lawson captured the experience of the Australian bush. The character of colonial Australia, as embodied in early literature, resonates with modern Australia and its perceived emphasis on egalitarianism, mateship, and anti-authoritarianism. In 1973, Patrick White was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, the only Australian to have achieved this; he is recognised as one of the great English-language writers of the 20th century. Australian English is a major variety of the language; its grammar and spelling are largely based on those of British English, overlaid with a rich vernacular of unique lexical items and phrases, some of which have found their way into standard English. Australia has two public broadcasters (the ABC and SBS), three commercial television networks, three pay TV services, and numerous public, non-profit television and radio stations. Australia's film industry has achieved critical and commercial successes. Each major city has daily newspapers, and there are two national daily newspapers, The Australian and The Australian Financial Review. According to Reporters Without Borders in 2005, Australia is in 31st position on a list of countries ranked by press freedom, behind New Zealand (9th) and the United Kingdom (28th) but ahead of the United States. This ranking is primarily due to the limited diversity of commercial media ownership in Australia. Most Australian print media in particular is under the control of either News Corporation or John Fairfax Holdings. Australian rules football was developed in Australia and is played at amateur and professional levels. Sport is an important part of Australian culture, assisted by a climate that favours outdoor activities; 23.5% Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in organised sporting activities. At national and international levels, Australia has particularly strong teams in Australian rules football, Rugby League, Rugby Union, cricket and netball and excels in cycling and swimming. Australia has participated in every summer Olympic Games of the modern era, and every Commonwealth Games, and has hosted the 1956 and 2000 Summer Olympics; Australia has ranked among the top five medal-takers since 2000. Corporate and government sponsorship of many sports and élite athletes is common in Australia. Televised sport is popular; some of the highest rating television programs include the summer Olympic Games and the grand finals of local and international football competitions Anthem Advance Australia Fair "Australians all let us rejoice, For we are young and free; We've golden soil and wealth for toil; Our home is girt by sea; Our land abounds in nature's gifts
Of beauty rich and rare; In history's page, let every stage
Advance Australia Fair. In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia Fair. Beneath our radiant Southern Cross
We'll toil with hearts and hands; To make this Commonwealth of ours
Renowned of all the lands; For those who've come across the seas
We've boundless plains to share; With courage let us all combine
To Advance Australia Fair. In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia Fair." History of the national anthem A competition for a distinctive Australian anthem was announced by the then Prime Minister, the Hon. E. G. Whitlam QC MP, in his 1973 Australia Day address. The competition was awarded in two parts. Prizes were offered to the author of the words and the music composer. Some 250 lyric and 1400 music compositions were received. The judges concluded however, that none were of sufficiently high standard. The judges recommended that a choice of a national anthem be made from one of Australia's traditional, familiar songs. The Australia Council for the Arts, which had conducted the 1973 competition, proposed that an anthem be selected from Advance Australia Fair, Song of Australia or Waltzing Matilda. A national poll was conducted in February 1974 and Advance Australia Fair was favoured as the new national anthem. In May 1977 a referendum was held and Australians were asked to state a preference for a national tune. The final results were: Advance Australia Fair - 4,415,642 votes

Waltzing Matilda - 2,353,617 votes
The following year the Minister for Administrative Services announced that Advance Australia Fair was the people's choice but that there were no official words for it. In 1981, the National Australia Day Committee proposed to change the words of Advance Australia Fair to remove any gender bias and delete the second and fourth verses. In 1984 the Government took into account the 1977 referendum results and announced that the first and third verses of Peter Dodds McCormick's composition Advance Australia Fair would be the national anthem. The national anthem was proclaimed by the Governor General on 19 April 1984. In conjunction with the national anthem's proclamation the Prime Minister announced that the royal anthem God Save the Queen, would only be used in the presence of the Queen or a member of the Royal Family in Australia on an official visit. History of the Australian flag When the Australian colonies federated to form the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901, the Union Jack had been the official flag for 100 years to the day. A new nation raised an urgent demand for a new emblem. An official competition for a design was arranged, which attracted 32,823 entries. Five of these, which contained almost identical designs, were placed equal first. Apart from later changes in the magnitudes of the stars and the number of points, they had produced the present Australian flag. The Australian national flag is the only one to fly over the whole continent. The Federal Government encourages the flying of the Australian national flag by all Australians and is committed to retaining and promoting pride in the flag and actively encourages all Australians to be aware of, and proud of, their country's identity. One of the avenues used by the Government to achieve this aim is the Constituents' Request Program, which is administered through the electorate offices of Senators and Federal Members of Parliament. Under this program, certain organisations and institutions, including schools and community organisations, may obtain an Australian national flag free of charge to fly or display as appropriate. In addition, any member of the public may obtain from a Senator or local Federal Member of Parliament a publication called Australian flags, which explains the history of the Australian national flag and gives a detailed outline of flag protocol issues. In 1996 the Government took two other initiatives to promote the national flag. To commemorate the first flying of the Australian national flag in 1901, the Governor-General proclaimed 3 September of each year as Australian National Flag Day. Also the Flags Amendment Act 1996 was passed by the House of Representatives on 12 December 1996 to guarantee that all Australians will be consulted before any changes to the design of the Australian national flag are made. The Flags Amendment Act 1996 requires that any change to the Australian national flag must be approved by the Australian electorate and that the existing Australian national flag will always be amongst the choices offered to the Australian people. Australia Day Celebrate what's great. Australia Day, January 26, is the biggest day of celebration in the country and is observed as a public holiday in all states and territories. On Australia Day we come together as a nation celebrate what's great about Australia and being Australian. It's the day to reflect on what we have achieved and what we can be proud of in our great nation. It's the day for us to re-commit to making Australia an even better place for the future. What's great about Australia? There are many great things about this country: The people - The life savers on the beach and the farmers in the bush; the larrikins; our sporting heroes, artists and visionaries; the volunteers who dedicate their lives to others; the spirit of pulling together in hard times and achieving beyond expectation; the eminent Australians from all walks of life, the battlers and the ordinary Australians who are anything but ordinary. Our land - Fragile yet enduring. Harsh and extreme, lush and bountiful-a continent like no other. Our ancient land offers boundless opportunity, sustains us and makes us who we are. Our diversity - A nation of difference and unity. People from the city, the country, different nations and backgrounds; we are one people, living together. Through our diverse beliefs and experiences we learn from each other and grow together. The indigenous cultures - The rich and resilient spirituality; the knowledge, art and history. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are part of Australia's identity and culture. Our freedom and democracy - A society built on fundamental rights and responsibilities. Freedom of thought and expression. Participation in government and respect for and equality under the law. A fair go for all - An enduring spirit of mateship and fairness. A compassionate society committed to access to employment, housing, health and education. Ours is a land of opportunity where we can do anything. History of Australia day
A Day for the People
Australia Day today is a community day. With formal ceremonies around the country - flag raising, citizenship ceremonies and the presentation of community awards - combined with local events and fun activities, the day belongs to the people. Celebrations actively encourage participation of all Australians regardless of age, ethnicity and culture. Increasing numbers of communities are also making efforts to recognise the meaning of the day for indigenous Australians with events such as indigenous flag-raising and welcome to country ceremonies. While the historical aspects of the day will always be acknowledged, there is now a greater awareness of the need to celebrate contemporary Australia with our diversity, remarkable achievements and bright future. First celebrations
On January 26, 1788 Captain Arthur Phillip took formal possession of the colony of New South Wales and became its first Governor. The fledging colony soon began to celebrate the anniversary of this date. Manning Clarke notes that in 1808 the "anniversary of the foundation of the colony" was observed in the traditional manner with "drinking and merriment". The first official celebrations were held in 1818 to mark the 30th anniversary of white settlement. Governor Macquarie officiated at a thirty-gun salute during the day and a dinner ball at Government House that evening. Foundation Day

During the early nineteenth century the anniversary was called 'Foundation Day' and was usually marked by sporting events. Horseracing was popular in the 1820s, whilst regattas became popular in the 1830s. One of these, the Anniversary Regatta which was first held in 1836, is still held on Sydney Harbour on January 26 each year. Now called the Australia Day Regatta it is the oldest continuous regatta in the world. A growing sense of patriotism was also being expressed in other ways. In 1824 Charles Tompson, reputed to be our first Australia-born poet, composed Wild Notes from the Lyre of a Native Minstrel. Fifty years after Phillip landed Australia's first public holiday was announced to celebrate Foundation Day 1838. The inaugural holiday became an annual event and has continued to be held on or around January 26. United festivities
Unlike previous years, when the celebrations were mainly private, the 1838 celebrations were a 'day for everyone' with the harbour foreshores crowded and a cracker display for the people. By 1888, gold had been found and Australia's population had grown to nearly three million. All the colonial capitals, except Adelaide, proclaimed 'Anniversary Day' a public holiday and celebrations took place throughout the individual colonies. The centenary was marked by ceremonies, parades, exhibitions, fireworks, banquets, church services and regattas. An estimated 50,000 people watched the Governor, Lord Carrington, unveil a statue in honour of Queen Victoria. Although the talk was of federation there was no question of the Australian people's loyalty to the mother country. The 150th anniversary of white settlement in 1938 were marked with official ceremonies around the nation celebrating the arrival of Captain Phillip. The show piece of the NSW celebrations was a re-enactment of Phillip's landing, complete with the deposition of a party of Aborigines. The latter group had been brought to Sydney when their city counterparts refused to participate in what they called a 'grossly theatrical re-enactment'. Several hours before the re-enactment Aboriginal activists convened a 'Day of Mourning' conference aimed at securing citizenship and equal status for Aborigines. Interestingly, the celebrations omitted any mention of Australia's convict roots. Australia Day Finally, in 1946, the Commonwealth Government, States and Territories agreed to observe one national day 'Australia Day' under one banner and on the same day. During this period the celebrations continued to have a largely imperial feel consisting mainly of formal re-enactments of the First Fleet's landing. The National Australia Day Council was formed in 1979, with state and territory councils and committees soon after. From their inception they have encouraged more 'grass roots' celebrations, working with local government authorities to promote the wider celebration of Australia Day. However, the Australia Day public holiday was still held on the Monday closest to January 26 and to the broader community it was just another holiday. In our bi-centenary year, 1988, the Australia Day public holiday was held around the nation on January 26. The highlight of the many celebrations was a re-enactment of the First Fleet's trip which departed from Portsmouth on May 13, 1987 and arrived in Australia in early January. Britain then presented the tall ship, Young Endeavour, to Australia as its bi-centennial present. Alongside the celebrations 1988 was named a Year of Mourning for Australia's Aboriginal people, who also regarded the year as a celebration of survival. It was the most vocal indigenous presence ever felt on 26 January. In addition to the celebrations the bi-centennial left a legacy of tangible projects. Often funded by the Federal, State and Territory Governments these diverse and useful projects are lasting monuments to the celebrations. Since the bi-centenary Australia Day celebrations have continued to grow in number and stature with the celebrations continuing to involve a larger and broader audience. It was not until 1994 however, that all the states and territories endorsed the celebration of Australia Day on the actual day instead of the closest Monday. United Australia Day celebrations have been held on 26 January ever since. Australia Day timeline 1788 Captain Arthur Phillip unfurls the British flag at Sydney Cove and proclaims British sovereignty over the eastern seaboard of Australia. 1808 First recorded celebrations on 26 January. 1818 Governor Macquarie holds the first official celebrations on 26 January, marking 30 years of white settlement. 1836 First 'Anniversary Regatta' held on Sydney Harbour. Now called the Australia Day Regatta, it is the oldest continuous regatta in the world. 1838 Fiftieth anniversary of Captain Phillip's landing and commencement of traditional 'Australia Day' public holiday in NSW. 1888 Centenary celebrations for Anniversary Day. 1901 Federation of the Commonwealth of Australia. 1931 'Australia Day' adopted in Victoria. 1932 'Australia Day' adopted in NSW, only to be reversed to 'Anniversary Day' by the incoming state government. 1935 Commonwealth Government and all States and Territories, except NSW, adopt 'Australia Day' as the official title for our national day. 1938 150th anniversary celebrations across the nation. 1946 All States and Territories celebrate January 26 as 'Australia Day'. 1960 Sir Macfarlane Burnet named the first Australian of the Year. 1968 Lionel Rose becomes the first Aboriginal Australian of the Year. 1979 National Australia Day Council formed, incorporated in 1990. 1988 Bi-centennial celebrations and for the first time a united public holiday on January 26 across the nation. 1992 Inaugural Survival Concert held at La Perouse, now an annual event. 1994 All States and Territories begin to celebrate Australia Day on the actual day - January 26 - for the first time. Great Barrier Reef Satellite image of a part of the Great Barrier Reef. Photo courtesy of NASA. The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef. The reef is located in the Coral Sea off the coast of Queensland in north-east Australia. It stretches over 2000 kilometres in length and can be seen from space. An ancient barrier reef similar to the Great Barrier Reef can be found in The Kimberlies.The Great Barrier Reef first became known to Europeans when the explorer Captain James Cook ran aground on it in June 11, 1770. The Great Barrier Reef however was known to Indigenous Australians whose occupation of the Australian continent extends back 40,000 to 60,000 years or more. The oldest parts of the reef date from about 60,000 years ago.The Great Barrier Reef is a large system of about 900 islands and over 3000 coral reefs, which mostly lie some distance from the mainland coastline. Due to its vast biodiversity, warm clear waters and its accessibility from the floating guest facilities called 'live aboards', the Reef is a very popular destination for tourists, especially scuba divers. Many cities along the Queensland coast offer boat trips to the reef on a daily basis. Several continental islands have been turned into resorts. The Great Barrier Reef is sometimes referred to as the single largest organism in the world. In reality it is made up of many millions of tiny organisms, as are all coral formations. A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Environmental threats Runoff The coastline of north eastern Australia has no major rivers, except during tropical flood events caused by cyclones (hurricanes), several major urban centres with Cairns, Townsville, Mackay, Rockhampton and the industrial city of Gladstone. Cairns and Townsville are the largest of these coastal cities with populations of approximately 150,000 each. Unlike most reef environments the Great Barrier Reef is the only one where the catchment area is home to industrialised urban areas and where extensive areas of coastal lands and rangelands have been used for agricultural and pastoral purposes. Due to the range of human uses made of the catchment adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef some 400 of the 3000 reefs are within a risk zone where water quality has declined owing to sediment and chemical runoff from farming, and to loss of coastal wetlands which are a natural filter. Principal agricultural activity is sugar cane in the wet tropics and cattle grazing in the dry tropics regions. Both are considered significant factors affecting water quality. Global warming and coral bleaching

The most significant threat to the future of the Great Barrier Reef in its current form and of the planet's other tropical reef ecosystems is global warming. Many of the corals of the Great Barrier Reef are currently living at the upper edge of their temperature tolerance, as demonstrated in the coral bleaching events of the summers of 1998 and 2002. As was seen at those times, under the stress of waters that remain too warm for too long, corals expel their photosynthesising zooxanthellae and turn colourless, revealing their white calcium carbonate skeletons, and if the water does not cool within about a month the coral will die. Global warming has triggered the collapse of reef ecosystems throughout the tropics. Increased global temperatures bring more violent tropical storms, but reef systems are naturally resilient and recover from storm battering. With an upward trend in temperature apparently continuing, much more coral bleaching is expected to occur in the coming decades. Crown-of-Thorns starfish Crown-of-Thorns starfish are natural predators of corals. They have a life cycle with many eggs released annually, that enables this species to boom-and-bust like locusts in a desert. The cycles are thought to be enhanced by declines in water quality such as excess nutrients from farm runoff. Since scientists and other users of the reef have been able to observe crown-of-thorns outbreaks, about 1/3 of the entire system has been affected since the 1960s. The link to an animation of Crown-of-Thorns starfish outbreaks illustrates, using data collected from the Australian Institute of Marine Science Long Term Monitoring Program, the occurrence of Crown-of-Thorns starfish outbreaks. Managing the Great Barrier Reef There are approximately two million visitors to the Great Barrier Reef each year. Although most of these visits are highly regulated, there are some very popular areas near shore (such as Green Island) that have suffered damage from tourist activity. The Australian Government manages the reef, through the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and in partnership with the state of Queensland, to ensure that it is widely understood and used in a sustainable manner. A combination of zoning, management plans, permits, education and incentives (such as eco-tourism certification) are used in the effort to conserve the Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981. On July 1, 2004 the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park became the largest protected sea area in the world when the Australian Government increased the areas protected from extractive activities (such as fishing) from 4.6% to 33.3% of the park. History The reef has, over the years, brought many ships to grief. James Cook's HM Bark Endeavour hit the reef in 1770 and sustained considerable damage. It was finally saved after lightening the ship as much as possible and re-floating it during an incoming tide. One of the most famous wrecks is that of the HMS Pandora, which sank on August 29, 1791 killing 35. The Queensland Museum has been leading archaeological digs to the Pandora since 1983. The aboriginals and their flag Indigenous Australians The Indigenous Australians are the first inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands, continuing their presence during European settlement. The term includes the various indigenous peoples commonly known as Aborigines, whose traditional lands extend throughout mainland Australia, Tasmania and numerous offshore islands, and also the Torres Strait Islanders whose lands are centred on the Torres Strait Islands which run between northernmost Australia and the island of New Guinea. Definitions The term Indigenous Australians encompasses a large number of diverse communities and societies, with notably different modes of subsistence, cultural practices, languages, technologies and inhabited environments. However, these peoples also share a larger set of traits, and are otherwise seen as being broadly related. A collective identity as Indigenous Australians is recognised and exists alongside the identity and membership of many local community and traditional groups. There are also various names from the indigenous languages which are commonly used to identify groups based on regional geography and other affiliations. These include: Koori (or Koorie) in New South Wales and Victoria; Murri in Queensland; Noongar in southern Western Australia; Nunga in southern South Australia; Anangu in northern South Australia, and neighbouring parts of Western Australia and Northern Territory; Yapa in western central Northern Territory, and Palawah (or Pallawah) in Tasmania. These larger groups may be further subdivided; for example, Anangu (meaning a person from Australia's central desert region) recognises localised subdivisions such as Yankunytjatjara, Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjara, Luritja and Antikirinya. The word aboriginal, appearing in English since at least the 17th century and meaning "first or earliest known, indigenous", has been used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. (The word aborigines was used first in Latin to denote the "original" inhabitants of the settlement that later became Rome after the advent of refugees from Troy, with whom they later intermarried: see Livy, History of Rome, 1.) It soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, "Aborigine" is the noun and "Aboriginal" the adjectival form; however this latter is often also employed to stand as a noun. Note that the use of "Aboriginal(s)" in this sense, i.e. as a noun, has acquired negative, even derogatory connotations among some sectors of the community, who regard it as insensitive, and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is "Australian Aborigines", though even this is sometimes regarded as an expression to be avoided because of its historical associations with colonialism. "Indigenous Australians" has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history which they identify as being distinct from mainland indigenous traditions, and are more closely related to Melanesian peoples. Accordingly, they are not generally included under the designation "Australian Aborigines". This has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". (The once-common abbreviation "Abo" is now widely considered highly offensive, roughly equivalent to "nigger" in the United States. Use of the word "native", common in literature before about 1960, is also regarded as offensive.)
Origins A 19th century engraving of an Indigenous Australian encampment, showing the indigenous mode of life in the cooler parts of Australia at the time of European settlement. There is no clear or accepted racial origin of the indigenous people of Australia. Although they migrated to Australia through South-East Asia they are not related to any known Asian population. Nor are they related to the nearby peoples of Melanesia or Polynesia. There is some speculation that they are related to some racial groups in India, based on mitochondrial DNA evidence. In view of the very long time they have been in Australia, almost entirely isolated from other human populations, it is unlikely that they will be found to be closely related to any identifiable racial group. Indigenous languages are also quite unrelated to any other known languages. In the late 18th century, there were anywhere between 350 and 750 distinct groupings and a similar number of languages and dialects. At the start of the 21st century, only about 200 indigenous languages are still in use and all but about 20 of these are endangered to a greater or lesser extent. It is believed that first human migration to Australia was achieved when this landmass earlier formed part of the Sahul continent, connected to the island of New Guinea via a land bridge. It is also possible that people came by boat across the Timor Sea. The exact timing of the arrival of the ancestors of the Indigenous Australians has been a matter of dispute among archaeologists. The most conservative widely-accepted timeline for first arrival is between 40,000 - 50,000 years BP. This means there have been more than 1250 generations in Australia. A 48,000 BC date is based on a few sites in northern Australia dated using thermoluminescence. A large number of sites have been radiocarbon dated to around 38,000 BC, leading some researchers to doubt the accuracy of the thermoluminescence technique. Some estimates have been given as wide as from 30,000 to 68,000 BC. Thermoluminescence dating of the Jinmium site in the Northern Territory suggested a date of 200,000 BP. Although this result received wide press coverage, it is not accepted by most archaeologists. Only Africa has older physical evidence of human habitation. Humans reached Tasmania approximately 40,000 years ago by migrating across a land bridge from the mainland that existed during the last ice age. After the seas rose, the inhabitants there were isolated from the mainland for 35,000 years until the arrival of European settlers. Mungo Man, whose remains were discovered in 1974 near Lake Mungo in New South Wales, is the oldest human yet found in Australia. Although the exact age of Mungo Man is in dispute, the best consensus is that he is at least 40,000 years old. Stone tools also found at Lake Mungo have been estimated, based on stratigraphic association to be about 50,000 years old. Since Lake Mungo is in south-eastern Australia, many archaeologists have concluded that humans must have arrived in north-west Australia at least several thousand years earlier. Issues facing Indigenous Australians today The Australian Aboriginal population is for the most part urbanised, but a substantial number live in settlements (often located on the site of former church missions) in what are considered remote areas. The health and economic difficulties facing both groups are substantial. For example, life expectancy of Aboriginal people is about 20 years shorter than the wider Australian population. Aboriginal people, particularly youths, are substantially more likely to be imprisoned than the general population, and the rate of suicides in police custody remains quite high. Rates of unemployment, health problems and poverty are likewise higher than the general population; and school retention rate and university attendance is lower. Health In 1998-2000, the life expectancy of an Indigenous Australian was 21 years less (for males) and 20 years less (for females) than that of an average Australian. This stark statistic is the result of continuing poor health at all levels and all age-groups within the indigenous population (e.g. the indigenous infant mortality rate is four times that of average Australians), and is well recognised, well-documented, and quite uncontroversial. However, the primary cause of this massive problem is still unclear, and the discussion of how to solve it generates heated controversy. As continuing efforts fail to address the problem, it has become clear that there is no simple single cause, and correspondingly no simple "quick fix". However, the following factors seem to be at least partially implicated. • discrimination • low income • poor education • substance abuse • remote locations with poor access to health services • for urbanised Indigenous Australians, social pressures which prevent access to health services • cultural differences resulting in poor communication between Indigenous Australians and health workers. Successive Federal Governments, of both political hues, have responded to the problem by implementing programs such as the Office of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (OATSIH). There have been some small successes, such as the reduction of infant mortality since the 1970's, effected by bringing health services into indigenous communities, but on the whole the problem remains unsolved. Education Indigenous students as a group leave school earlier, and leave with a lower standard of education, compared to their non-indigenous peers. Although the situation is slowly improving, and the gap narrowing, both the levels of participation in education and training among Indigenous Australians and their levels of attainment remain well below those of non-Indigenous Australians. The following statistics are taken from the ABS, and mainly refer to 2001 statistics, when the last census was taken. • 39% of indigenous students stayed on to year 12 at high school, compared to 75% for the Australian population as a whole. • 22% of indigenous adults had a vocational or higher education qualification, compared to 48% for the Australian population as a whole. • 4% of Indigenous Australians held a bachelor degree or higher, compared to 21% for the population as a whole. While this fraction is increasing, it is increasing at a slower rate than that for non-Indigenous Australians. While some of these statistics reflect cultural differences, it has been claimed that they also reflect the poorer quality of some schools in low-income areas, rather than being due to any explicitly discriminatory policies. On the other hand, particularly for rural Indigenous Australians leading traditional lifestyles, these statistics reflect only part of the education of an individual. For example, a young Indigenous Australian is likely to have far greater traditional knowledge of the land than a non-indigenous peer. Nevertheless, they leave a young Indigenous Australian at a significant disadvantage compared to non-indigenous peers, and are at least partly to blame for lower income, poorer health, and higher unemployment. In response to this problem, the Commonwealth Government formulated a National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Policy. A number of government initiatives have resulted, some of which are listed by the Commonwealth Government's Indigenous Education page. Mainland Australia Clans, groups and communities Indigenous Australian communities, past and present Before the British colonisation, there were a great many different Aboriginal groups, each with their own individual culture, belief structure, and language (approximately 300 different languages existed at the time of European settlement). These cultures overlapped to a greater or lesser extent, and evolved over time. Indigenous Australian Aboriginal communities are often called tribes, and there are several hundred in Australia, although the exact number is unknown, because in many parts of Australia, there are no clear tribes or nations. The word 'community' is often used to describe Aboriginal groups as a more acceptable wordt. Sometimes smaller communities are referred to as tribes, and other times many communities are included in the same 'tribe'. Sometimes the different language groups are called tribes, although it can be very difficult to distinguish between different languages and dialects of a single language. The situation is complicated by the fact that sometimes up to twenty or thirty different names (either spelled differently in English, or using a different word altogether) are used for the same tribe or community. The largest Aboriginal communities today are the Pitjantjatjara, the Arrernte, the Luritja and the Warlpiri, all from the Northern Territory.
Culture A Corroboree is a ceremonial meeting of Australian Aborigines. Fire-stick farming is a term coined by Australian archeologist Rhys Jones in 1969 to describe the practice of Indigenous Australians where fire was used regularly to burn vegetation to facilitate hunting and to change the composition of plant and animal species in an area. Tjurunga or churinga was a term applied to objects of religious significance by Central Australian Aboriginal Arrernte (Aranda, Arundta) groups. Walkabout refers to the belief of non-Indigenous Australians that Aborigines were prone to "go walkabout" (a pidgin or perhaps quasi-pidgin expression) meaning that they would stop doing their jobs and wander through the bush for weeks at a time. Mythology Indigenous Australians have a complex oral tradition and spiritual values based upon reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime. The Dreamtime is at once the ancient time of creation and the present day reality of Dreaming. There were a great many different groups, each with their own individual culture, belief structure, and language. These cultures overlapped to a greater or lesser extent, and evolved over time. The Rainbow serpent is a major mythological being for Aboriginal people across Australia. The Yowie and Bunyip are well known mythological characters. Languages The Australian Aboriginal languages comprise several language families and isolates native to Australia and a few nearby islands, but by convention excluding Tasmania. A common feature of many Australian languages is that they display so called mother-in-law languages, special speech registers used only in the presence of certain close relatives. Most Australian languages are commonly held to belong to the Pama-Nyungan family. Traditionally, Australian languages have been divided into about two dozen families. Music Aborigines developed unique instruments and folk styles. The didgeridoo is commonly considered the national instrument of Australian Aborigines, which has been claimed to be the world's oldest wind instrument. It has possibly been used by the people of the Kakadu region for 1500 years. More recently, Aboriginal musicians have branched into rock and roll, hip hop and reggae. One of the most well known modern bands is Yothu Yindi playing in a style which has been called Aboriginal rock. Art Australia has a long tradition of Aboriginal art which is thousands of years old. Modern Aboriginal artists continue the tradition using modern materials in their artworks. Aboriginal art is the most internationally recognisable form of Australian art. Several styles of Aboriginal art have developed in modern times including the watercolour paintings of Albert Namatjira, and the acrylic Papunya Tula "dot art" movement. Painting is a large source of income for some Central Australian communities such as at Yuendumu today. Traditional recreation

Aborigines once participated in the traditional game of Marn Grook, a type of football played with possum hide. The game is believed by some to have inspired Tom Wills, inventor of the code of Australian Rules Football, Australia's most popular winter sport. Similarities between Marn Grook and Australian football include the unique skill of jumping to catch the ball or high "marking", which results in a free kick. The word "mark" may have originated in "mumarki", which is "an Aboriginal word meaning catch" in a dialect of a Marn Grook playing tribe. Indeed, Aussie Rules has seen many indigineous players at elite football, and have produced some of the most exciting and skillful to play the modern game. Testifying to this abundance of indigenous talent, the Aboriginal All-Stars are an AFL-level all-Aboriginal football side competes against any one of the Australian Football League's current football teams in pre-season tests. Tiwi Islands & Groote Eylandt The Tiwi islands are inhabited by the Tiwi, an Australian Aborigine people culturally and linguistically distinct from those of Arnhem Land on the mainland just across the water. They number around 2,500. Groote Eylandt belongs to the Anindilyakwa Aboriginal people, and is part of the Arnhem Land Aboriginal Reserve. Torres Strait Islanders Between 6% and 10% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. There are more than 100 islands which make up the Torres Strait Islands where they come from. There are 6,800 Torres Strait Islanders who live in the area of the Torres Strait, and 42,000 others who live outside of this area, mostly in the north of Queensland, such as in the coastal cities of Townsville and Cairns. Many organisations to do with Indigenous people in Australia are named "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander", showing the importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's indigenous population. The islands were annexed by Queensland in 1879. The Torres Strait Islanders were not given official recognition by the Australian government until the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission was set up in 1990. Eddie Mabo is from Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. Population As at June 2001, the Australian Bureau of Statistics estimated the total resident indigenous population to be 458,500 (2.4% of Australia's total), 90% of whom identified as Aboriginal, 6% Torres Strait Islander and the remaining 4% being of dual Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander parentage. In the 2001 census the Aboriginal population in different States was: • New South Wales - 134,888 • Queensland - 125,910 • Western Australia - 65,931 • Northern Territory - 56,875 • Victoria - 27,846 • South Australia - 25,544 • Tasmania - 17,384 • ACT - 3,909 • Other Territories - 233
While the State with the largest total Aboriginal population is New South Wales, as a percentage this constitutes only 2.1% of the overall population of the State. The Northern Territory has the largest Aboriginal population in percentage terms for a State or Territory, with 28.8%. All the other States and Territories have less than 4% of their total populations identifying as Aboriginal; the ACT has the lowest percentage (1.2%). The populations in the eastern states are more likely to be urbanised sometimes in city communities such as at Redfern in Sydney, whereas many of the populations of the western states live in remote areas, closer to a traditional Aboriginal way of life. Prominent Indigenous Australians
There have been many distinguished Indigenous Australians, in politics, sports, the arts and other areas. These include senator Neville Bonner, olympic athlete Cathy Freeman, tennis player Evonne Goolagong, Australian Rules footballer Michael Long, rugby union legend Mark Ella, rugby league player and boxer Anthony Mundine, actor Ernie Dingo, painter Albert Namatjira, and singer Christine Anu, as well as many others

REACTIES

N.

N.

Abdu, hartstikke bedankt man. We hebben hier echt veel aan. Wij zitten nu in 5 ASO en kunnen dit goed gebruiken voor ons Engels mondeling.

BEDANKT MAN,

HOI

16 jaar geleden

Log in om een reactie te plaatsen of maak een profiel aan.