Algemene grammatica

Beoordeling 3.8
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  • 24 juli 2008
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The genitive/possessive S
The possessive of a noun is used n phrases like ‘the boy’s name’ or ‘Robert’s room’
Singular noun: ‘s boy - boy’s - Robert - Robert’s
Plural noun ending in s ’ boys - boys’ - tourists - tourists’
Plural noun not ending is s ‘s men - men’s - children - children’s

Sometimes you can use the possessive s or a phrase with OF (the name of the boy) but often only one is possible (normally) possessive with people and animals
*my friend’s house – *the dog’s owner – *the Parkers’ car
(normally) OF with things
*the side of the house (NOT the house’s side!) –
*the day of the meeting (NOT the meeting’s day!) –
*the result of the match (NOT de match’s result!)
(but) OF with people when there is a long phrase
*the house of one of our teachers at college -
*the address of those people we met in Spain (NOT those
people who we met in Spain address’!)
both for places and organisations
*London’s museums OR the museums of London -
*The company’s future OR the future of the company
The possessive can be used to say ‘when’ or ‘how long’
*Last week’s concert – *ten minutes’ walk -
(also) *in two months’s time (two months from now –
*a week’s wages (wages for a week)

Irregular/regular verbs
Regular verbs in the past tense/past participle - infinitive + -ed
*to work - worked *to rain - rained * to ask - asked
If de infinitive ends with a  - infinitive + -d
*to hate - hated *to decide - decided

Irregular verbs don’t end with –ed in the past/past participle/passive. There are 3 possibilities - infinitive is different from past tense and past participle (past participle and tense are the same)
*to build - built, built - *to hang - hung, hung
- infintive, past tense and past participle are all different from each other
*to hide - hid, hidden - *to forget - forgot, forgotten
- infinitive and past tense are the same, past participle is different
*to beat - beat, beaten
- infintive, past tense and past participle are all the same
* to cut - cut, cut - *to let - let, let
This verbs van be regular or irregular:
Burn - burned, burnt
Spoil - spoiled, spoilt
Spell - spelled, spelt
Learn - learned, learnt
Smell - smelled, smelt
Spill - spilled, spilt

The British prefer the t ending
Americans normally use the ed ending


Plurals of nouns can be created in the following ways:
Add an –s - most of words - *elephant - elepahnts - *light - lights
Add an –es - words that end in a "hissing" sound: -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh -
*box - boxes
Add an -s - word ends in a vowel plus –y: -ay, -ey, -iy, -oy, -uy -
*tray - trays
Add an –s – word ends in a consonant plus –y: change the -y into –ie -
*baby - babies
Change the -is to –es – words that end in –is - *thesis - theses
Change the –f or –fe to -ves - words that end in -f or –fe - *knife - knives -
*self - selves
Add an -s without an apostrophe - plurals of single capital letters, acronyms,
and Arabic numerals (1,2,3,...) - *Z (capital letter) - Zs - *3 (the Arabic
numeral) - 3s - *GUI (Graphical User Interface) - GUIs

Nouns that look like verbs and verbs that look like nouns
Taste, advise, use, dive, device, taste, relief are noun and verb.
Breath-noun - breathe-verb
Life-noun - live-verb

Reflexive verbs

Reflexive pronouns: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves,
yourselves, themselves

Present continuous vs present simple

Present continuous: am/are/is + infinitive + ing - I am working
Present simple: - I work

The present continuous expresses an activity that is in progress at the moment of speaking. It began in the recent past, is continuing at present, and will probably end at some point in the future: I am talking to you now. The present simple says that something was true in the past, is true in the present, and will be true in future. Ann comes from England.

Past continuous vs past simple

Past continuous: was/were + infinitive + ing - I was working
Past simple: - I worked

The past continuous expresses an activity that was in progress at a point of time in the past or at the time of another action - I was talking to you when the phone rang. The past simple indicates that an activity or situation began and ended at a particular time in the past - I talked to your teacher yesterday


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