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As Science For Public Understanding chapter 1/2

Beoordeling 4.7
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  • 4e klas vwo | 721 woorden
  • 3 maart 2008
  • 16 keer beoordeeld
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16 keer beoordeeld

Overweeg jij om Politicologie te gaan studeren? Meld je nu aan vóór 1 mei!

Misschien is de studie Politicologie wel wat voor jou! Tijdens deze bachelor ga je aan de slag met grote en kleine vraagstukken en bestudeer je politieke machtsverhoudingen. Wil jij erachter komen of deze studie bij je past? Stel al je vragen aan student Wouter. 

Meer informatie
Chapter 1 and 2

Germ: a microbe can cause disease; includes bacteria, viruses, and fungi
Microbe: minute living beings only visible with help of microscope

Buda, Hungary – 1 July 1818
Vienna General Hospital – two delivery rooms (midwives & medical students – 12% died)
Jacob Kelletschka (colleague) cut himself while doing autopsy  same symptoms
Insisted medical students wash hands in chlorinated lime
Findings were resisted - pain & suffering to women normal  Adam & Eve

- hard to admit that doctors killed patients
- hand washing odd practice
Major breakdown in 1860s
Died in 1868 because of infection of patient

Puerperal fever/childbed fever – 1/5 women
Symptoms: pain abdomen, rapid pulse, high fever
severe pain, inflammation womb, vomiting, convulsions, death

Symptoms: severe stomach pains, vast amounts of watery diarrhoea, (vomit)
People suffering – poor in large cities & poor sanitation
Miasma (bad air) theory was used - clean rubbish from streets & build sewers (Edwin Chadwick)
John Snow observed cholera cases - conclusion: poison reproduced in body
Hypothesis: disease is communicated by something that acts
directly on alimentary canal
1854 – another outbreak – Snow made a graph of where all the cases were and he saw:
1. all cases had been in contact with one pump (Broad Street Pump)  let handle remove - epidemic contained

2. there were two water companies. One took it before the Thames went into the city and the other one after. People who got the water from the last company were much likelier to get cholera

Semmelweis & Snow -infectious diseases brought by infectious agent

Pasteur studied yeast theory and therefore became interested in microbes
1859 joined debate about spontaneous generation – no evidence it did ever happen - experiment swan-necked flasks
1866 showed microbes could be cause of diseases (large number silkworms died in France - Pasteur showed microbes were cause by extracting them from dead worms - kept healthy silkworms away from the others)

Devised techniques for culturing bacteria on agar jelly
Study bacteria - dyes to stain on glass so could be seen
^^ discovered causes of 11 diseases (anthrax, TB, cholera)

Germ invades body - damages tissue by reproducing themselves  symptoms disease

• living creatures transmit
• clothing/bedding
• direct contact
• coughs/sneezes/talks
• food/drink
• cuts/wounds in skin

Immune system; white blood cells, antibodies
Antibodies; are specific and produced by white blood cells
Immunisation; vaccination
Vaccination; derived from Latin word cow  cowpox
Pasteurised; heating milk for a short time to kill bacteria

• tears
• acid
• unbroken skin
• blood clots
• mucus & hairs

Infected person spreads disease by coughing, sneezing, talking, spitting  infects ±13 people p.y.
Infection doesn’t lead to sickness with disease - immune system protection & bacteria with thick coat
Bovis; affects cattle - by drinking infected milk
Most commonly respiratory system, but can everywhere in body
Bacteria stimulates immune system - destroys own lung tissue
Symptoms; fever, night sweats, loss of weight, non-eating

First disease “cured” by this – smallpox
Made illegal in Britain in 1840 – some people were cured others still died

Milk girls suffered from cowpox but didn’t get smallpox
1794 – Jenner tested his theory (infecting people with cowpox, protect from smallpox)

Took pus of cowpox and scratched it into a small boy’s arm, few months later same with smallpox

Got microbes infected chickens - died
A student infected chickens with older microbes - ill but didn’t die - infected with new microbes - immune to new injection

Anthrax germ was very hard to grow in laboratory - Koch developed new way - Pasteur used it - heated it for a few days on 40C - weakened vaccination
Pasteur “stole” this method from the younger Toussaint.
Pasteur had to challenge if the vaccination worked at Pouilly-le-Fort - it worked

Rabid dogs bite people - die
A boy was bitten and his mother heard of Pasteur - sended boy to him - boy was cured

Highly infectious & short incubation period
Symptoms; fever, sweating, feeling unwell, unable to do anything, loss of appetite, aching muscles, painful joints.
Treatment; rest, warmth, plenty of fluids, mild painkillers, (antibiotics)
Infects cells lining tubes to lungs - airway open to infections

1. Vaccine really effective in preventing disease?
2. Side-effects and chance my child gets affected?

3. Authorities do if my child suffers lasting damage from vaccination?

Drugs; active ingredients in medicines used for treatment, relief, prevention of disease
Medicines; one or more drugs mixed with inert materials
Pharmaceutical industry; part of chemical industry that makes drugs & medicines
Chemotherapy; use of chemicals to treat disease
Antibiotic; antibacterial substance produced by organism
Enzyme; protein molecule speed/control biochemical reaction in living cell
Placebo; “dummy” pill given as control during clinical trial


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