Summary ELDC Issues

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ELDC Issues | Summary

Rural-Urban Migration;
During 20th century many people moved from the countryside to cities. This is due to:
Rural ‘push’ factors:
• Lack of employment
• Overpopulation
• Starvation & limited food production
• Extreme physical conditions (farming is hard work)
• Lack of services
Urban ‘pull’ factors:
• Better-paid jobs
• Higher quality of life
• Better chance of services (schools, medical treatment)
• More reliable sources of food
Pull factors are often greater than push factors. The people they will be better of in cities, but the reality is different. People have few/no money → not able to buy house & make shelter of waste materials.
There is a big difference between rich (few) & poor (many).

Different kinds of economic activities:
• Primary industries – Raw materials (mining, fishing, farming)
• Secondary industries – Manufacturing (steelmaking, car assembly)
• Tertiary industries – Services (education, health, transport)
• Quaternary industries – Information & expertise
Employment structures are the proportion is people working in each sector, which vary from place to place and change from time to time.
1800 – Mostly primary sector. Fewest in tertiary sector.
1900 – Industrial Revolution – Less people in primary sector & many in secondary.
2000 – Farming needed less people because of machines. More competition from overseas. More need for workers in tertiary sector.

Food production rose → proportion of underfed people fell.
Population & poverty increased → more people suffering from malnutrition; this is due to the deficiencies of quantity or quality in a diet → this leads to starvation, reduces capacity to work and resistance to diseases.
DES – calories intake per capita available each day in a country
People within tropics consume less calories than in the North. (because of body heating)
An increasing amount of people experience chronic malnutrition. This is mainly due to human factors (civil wars, political instability) than to physical causes (natural disasters)

Low-birthweight babies often have a shortened lifetime and are full of health problems.
Children under the age of 5 are very susceptible to malnutrition. They fall ill because they take in to few proteins or too few calories.
Marasmus & Kwashiokor are protein deficiency diseases. Beri-beri & rickets are 2 diseases caused by a lack of vitamins.
People in sub-Saharan Africa:
• High birth rate, falling death rate → more people to be fed
• Few farmers have money to buy stuff for agriculture
• Government can’t afford food from overseas & there is political instability
• Few nutrients in the soil, few rainfall & diseases destroy crops

Newly Industrialised Countries in East Asia:
Eastern Asian governments improved their standards of living by investing in manufacturing industry, developing heavy industries & later on high-tech industries.
South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong & Singapore (the four tigers) their manufacturing output rose very fast. They had a lack of basic raw materials, therefore governments introduced long-term industrial planning. The workforce was reliable, worked long hours and was cheap.
Formal & Informal sectors
In a developing country there are too many people and too few jobs available. Therefore many people enter the informal sector of employment, as opposed to the formal sector.
In many cities publicly and privately promoted schemes support self-help efforts.
Children make up a large proportion of the informal sector and they don’t go to school.

Appropriate Technology:
A more sustainable way of life can be reached by appropriate technology. In underdeveloped places alternative forms of technology should be adopted, because appropriate technology is not available. Alternative forms:
• Labour intensive projects should keep the jobs, so people aren’t replaced by machines
• Technology that is sustainable and utilises the existing skills & techniques of the people
• Developing crafts & industries by using local natural resources (where possible; recycling)
• Low-cost schemes using technologies that people can afford

Intermediate Technology Development Group
The ITDG helps people in rural areas (in developing countries) to acquire tools & techniques to work themselves out of poverty. They use the local knowledge by providing advice, training, equipment and financial support to become more independent.

Difference in levels of development & growth rate:
Divide the world in 2 groups; ‘North’ (EMDC) & ‘South’ (ELDC).
• Economic Wealth:
o Wealth of a country is measured in Gross national product per capita – total value of goods and services produced n a country in a particular period of time, divided by the people living in that country
o GNP does not show differences in wealth between people and places in a country
• Social indicators:
o Population – EMDCs have slower natural increase than ELDCs.
o EMDCs have smaller proportion of children aged under 15 and more aged over 65 than ELDCs
o Health – EMDCs have lower infant mortality rate, longer life expectancy fewer people per doctor than ELDCs
• Other indicators:
o Adult literacy, diet, employment structures & energy consumption
o They relate to wealth, because when a country has more money they can spend more on health care, education etc.
o GNP has to be increased to improve standard of living and quality of life
Human Development Index measures development that ranks countries according to quality of life. HDI is giving in a number between the 0.000 & 1.000. It is measured by 3 variables:
• Life expectancy – best measure of health and safety of a country
• Education attainment – combining adult literacy rates & school enrolment rate
• Real GNP per capita
HDI highlights where poverty is worst within a country and between countries.
Causes of Inequality:
Economic – Countries with energy resources were first to develop industry. Therefore, they were able to buy resources they did not have. Also they were able to provide many jobs, better transport systems & technologies.
Social – More developed → more money on education, health & better quality housing
Political – Develop more quickly when the government was stable & avoided civil war
Environmental – Develop more quickly if unaffected by natural hazards, pests & clean water
Consequences of inequality:
This led to differences in standards of living. ELDCs, compared to EMDCs have:
• Higher birth rates, infant mortality rate and natural increase, short life expectancy
• Poorer education, health care & diet
• More jobs in primary & informal sectors
• Less trade & less purchasing power per capita


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