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Beoordeling 7.6
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Aardrijkskunde paragraaf 1

Go west, Young man
- 1492 » North America was discovered
- Migration started in 1620
» most from the 13 English colonies
» independent in 1776
- Frontier » the edge of the settled country
- Colonization » establishment of colonies

Landscapes from east to west ( figure 3 in book)
- 1st = mountain range » Appalachian
- 2nd = central lowlands
- 3rd = great plains
- 4th = great basin

- 5th = cascade range
- 5th = coastal mountains
- 5th = sierra Nevada
- 5th central valley

Climate
- North winter = freezing cold
- South winter = ( Florida) warm & sunny

- Tornado » a violent windstorm characterized by a twisting, funnel-shaped cloud.
- Hurricane »

- Vegetation » in the united states, precipitation decreases from east to west except for the mountain ranges. ( about figure 2 in book)

1. Mixed forest » deciduous woodland + coniferous woodland
2. Long grasses ( praires)
3. Short grasses ( steppe)

4. Desert
5. Swamp

- Df = continental climate » many winds over land (offshore wind), influence of a cold sea flow, higher latitude, very little mountain ranges, or no mountain ranges to block the wet wind.
- Cf = maritime climate » without dry seasons. Lots of moist ( onshore wind) influence of a warm, sea flow (= summer + winter) Little or no mountain ranges to block the wet air.
- Bw + Bs = Desert climates » In the west the moist air is blocked by the coastal range, from the east the precipitation has gradually fallen out.
- EH = High mountain range climate » which occurs in some places of the rocky mountains.
- Cs = Mediteranian climate (= maritime + summer dry period) = most precipitation in winter time, due to a moist sea wind ( onshore) summer time dry ( offshore)

Workpad 7
1. Why there? It’s moisty. Also known as dairy belt. Very much large cities, where it is near. “afzetmarkt” + lots of people.
2. Why there ? In the winter it’s too cold. Warm enough to harvest in summer.

3. Why there? Corn needs more precipitation than wheat. So it’s more to the east.
4. Winter wheat. Why there ? too little precipitation in winter time.
5. Little precipitation so little vegetation so you need large areas in order to have enough grasses. This type of agriculture mainly produces : , flesh, ,
6. It’s warm and moist enough to grow cotton, peanuts, and tobacco. This is the area where the most slaves worked.
7. Market gathering. Why there ? It’s warm enough and for the area of California there is a large demand for such products. For the areas in Florida, mainly for export.

Factors affecting temperature ;
1. The latitude ( = the higher the latitude the colder)
2. The altitude ( = the higher up a mountain the colder)
3. Distance to the sea ( = warming up slowly or quickly)
4. Prevailing winds and ocean currents ( = flow of cold or warm air from somewhere else)
5. Near mountain ranges ( = protected or not ?)

Latitude + temperature

- Latitude = the higher the latitude the colder)
- High latitude = in the polar regions , it is cold

- Low latitude = in the tropics , it is warm
- Tropics = the sun shines directly on the earth’s surface in the middle of the day.
- Polar regions = the sun never rises much above the horizon. The sun shines on the earth’s surface at a shallow angle, and the shadows are long.

Prevailing winds and temperature

- Land wind = offshore wind » makes it warmer in the summer and colder in the winter.
- Sea wind = onshore wind » makes it cooler in the summer and milder in the winter.
• Ocean currents » can transport warm seawater from the tropics to the polar regions.

Formation of precipitation
- Precipitation » rain, hail or snow. It deals with rising air.
- Windward side = the air is pushed up on the windward side and then it cools down and there is snow or rain.
- Leeward side = a side which is away from the wind and air drops and warms up.

- Rain shadow = the area behind the mountain is in the rain shadow.

Köppen climate
- A : tropical rainforest climate ; tropical vegetation
- B : dry climate ; desert vegetation
- C : temperate maritime climate ; area with deciduous trees
- D : continental climate ; area with coniferous trees
- E : Polar climate ; area with tundra or perpetual snow
- ACDE = from warm to cold , B = Dry desert climate
- f = fehlt ; no dry season at all
- s = summer dry season
- w = winter dry season

Aardrijkskunde Paragraaf 2
Indians (small, 2 million people)
- they were forced to the poorer lands in the west of the US.
- Many of them still live in the dry mountainous regions.

- Others live in the large cities, often in the poor neighborhoods.
- 4 groups formed as result of international migration.

Europeans ( 200 million Am have EU roots)
- Pull factor » the possibility of starting a new life in freedom.
- Push factor » to escape the poor living condition.
- Emigration » poverty & unemployment. Or » not enough political & religious freedom.

Afro-Americans (30 million)

- 18th & 19th century » they were descendants of African slaves who were forced to work on the cotton plantations.
- They went to the north-east , to the big cities to get work in the factories.

Hispanics (= Latinos) (35 million people)

- Spanish speaking immigrant from Latin America (= Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico)

- Many Hispanics have never been to school and work as farm labourers or in industry.
- Push factor » poverty & unemployment
- Pull factor » work & income
- Spanish is the second language in the US

Asians

- Before 1965 » only few immigrants from China & Japan
- After 1965 » More immigrants from China, Japan, Cambodia, South Korea and Vietnam.
- Mainly live on the west coast ( California)
- They are well educated and have good jobs. ( = called Model Minority)
- Some are poor » Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam

Melting pot

- Immigrants must adapt as much as possible and are encouraged to adopt the national culture. (assimilation)
- Everybody has equal opportunities


Ethnic mosaic

- After 1960 » Sticking together of people from the same countries was more common.
- There were increasing numbers of ethnic neighbourhoods in the big cities.
- US is more an Ethnic mosaic than a melting pot.

Changes in the population size
- Natural changes » births and deaths.
- Natural increase = more people are born then die.
- Natural decrease = more people die then are born.
- Migration = the movement of people within or between areas.
- Positive net migration = the number of people settling in that area is greater than the number of people leaving (departing).
- Negative net migration = the number of people leaving the area is larger than the number of people settling.
- Net migration = settlement & departure.


International migration
- International migration = moving to another country

2 forms of ; emigration & immigration
- Emigration = leaving a country.
- Immigration = entering a country.

Immigrants and natives

- Immigrant = someone living in your country whose father and/or mother was/were born abroad. (literally = moving in from elsewhere)
- Native = both of your parents were born in the Netherlands.
- Western immigrants = come from the cultural region of the western world.
- Non- Western immigrants = from a different cultural region.

Multicultural society

- Multicultural = not all the same culture ( multi = many)

- Segregation = separation . 2 ways » spatial segregation + social segregation.

- Integration = coming together. Opposite of segregation.
- Assimilation = Know the meaning of it !!

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