§3.1 - India, land of monsoons
- India is located on the peninsula of South Asia with distinct boundaries: bordered in the north by the Himalayas and in the south by the waters of Indian Ocean. Also called sub-continent because such an obviously separate part of Asia.
- If you look at relief, South Asia can be divided into 3 regions
- North: India is bordered by the Himalayas. High mountain range has the highest mountain in the world: Mount Everest (8,848 m). Himalayas also called ‘rooftop of the world’
- Bordering on the mountain region is a coastal plain with two major rivers that have their source in the Himalayas: the Indus & the Ganges. Densely populated area with fertile farmland. (Land is fertile because of the silt deposited by the rivers when they flood)
- Centre India consists of a plateau: Deccan Plateau. (400-800m high). Bordered on the west coast by mountains: the Western Ghats
- South India is in the tropics (warm there all year round).
North India around 20˚ daytime in winter and 5˚ at night.
- Dry and wet season because of seasonal wind, the monsoon (=season), which reverses its direction every six months.
- Rainy season in summer (40˚ during the day). Heat causes the air to rise à lack of air flow above land is filled by sea air (moist, tropical sea wind from Indian Ocean is called the ‘south-west monsoon’) à causes large amount of precipitation on west coast of India and Himalayas à onshore wind collides with mountains causing rain.
- Winter: north-east wind blows from Asiatic continent to the sea. This off-shore wind is dry.
- Onset of monsoon normally begin in June, precipitation is unreliable: sometimes doesn’t rain or much less à disaster for farmers in Indian countryside.
South-east: longest rainy season
North-east: shortest rainy season and least precipitation
Rain shadow areas: very little precipitation (Deccan plateau, Thar Desert)
- North-east: amounts of precipitation extremely high. Cherrapunji: more than 11m precipitation every year. Rain in mountains flows back to sea via the Ganges and the Brahmaputra.
- Too much rainwater à floods (especially in delta areas in Bangladesh). Every year major floods in drainage basin of the Ganges.
High pressure: too much air
Low pressure: not enough air
Buijs Ballots law is about movement of air pressure, it says wind travels from maximum à minimum
Coriolis effect: because of rotation of Earth, wind in northern Hemisphere turns to right and wind in southern hemisphere turns to left.
Always hot at Equator à air rises and moves away à causes minimum, called tropical minimum.
Always cold at N & S Pole à air goes down and cools à causes maximum, called polar maximum.
Sub-tropical maximum: 30˚ latitude
Sub-polar minimum: 60˚ latitude
July: tropical minimum is north of Equator
January: tropical minimum is south of Equator
Wind turn to the left in southern hemisphere and to the right in northern hemisphere
When the wind passes the Equator it changes direction.
Wind changes 2 times a year around the Equator. These wind changes are called monsoons.
In Asia it brings a lot of rain because it crosses the Indian Ocean.
A = tropical rainforest climate
B = dry climate
C = sea climate
D = continental climate
E = polar climate
BW = very dry dessert climate
BS = less dry steppe climate
add to capital letter: (A,C&D)
f= precipitation all year
s= dry in summer
w= dry in winter
Cs= Mediterranean climate
Aw= savannah climate
add to E:
F= snow in polar regions
H= snow on high mountain ranges
§3.2 - India, land of contrasts
- No other country in the world has such variety of languages, religions and customs.
It is best compared with a continent such as Europe.
- South Asia is a big sub-continent (only 6 states). Political union is a legacy of the British. The colony of British India provided England with cotton, jute and tea. When it became independent in 1947, India was divided into states.
- 21 of hundred of languages are officially recognized. Most important language is Hindi.
- Eighty percent of population are Hindu. But it has the second-largest Muslim population (160 million). Also Christians, Buddhists, Sikhs and followers of Jainism.
Complex social structure
- Also conflicts caused by enormous class differences. Social inequality is normal in India’s complex society. This is because of the caste system. From when you’re born you belong to a certain social group called a caste this determines which job you can do and you have to marry someone from the same case and obey the rules of the case.
- Each caste has its own ‘sub-castes’, called jati. At the bottom of the ladder are the ‘outcastes’, also called the ‘untouchables’. à live in separate neighbourhoods and do dirty work (sweeping the streets, cleaning toilets). They are never allowed to drink from the cup that belongs to their boss who is from a higher caste. There are about 185 million outcastes in India (Dalits).
- Indians are use to obeying rules of their caste and listen to people who are above them. When they don’t they risk coming back into a lower caste in their next life or perhaps even as an animal.
- Officially the caste system has been abolishes but it is actually still very much alive, especially in the countryside.
De samenvatting gaat verder na deze boodschap.Verder lezen
1 seconde geleden