§3.1 - India, land of monsoons
- India is located on the peninsula of South Asia with distinct boundaries: bordered in the north by the Himalayas and in the south by the waters of Indian Ocean. Also called sub-continent because such an obviously separate part of Asia.
- If you look at relief, South Asia can be divided into 3 regions
- North: India is bordered by the Himalayas. High mountain range has the highest mountain in the world: Mount Everest (8,848 m). Himalayas also called ‘rooftop of the world’
- Bordering on the mountain region is a coastal plain with two major rivers that have their source in the Himalayas: the Indus & the Ganges. Densely populated area with fertile farmland. (Land is fertile because of the silt deposited by the rivers when they flood)
- Centre India consists of a plateau: Deccan Plateau. (400-800m high). Bordered on the west coast by mountains: the Western Ghats
- South India is in the tropics (warm there all year round).
North India around 20˚ daytime in winter and 5˚ at night.
- Dry and wet season because of seasonal wind, the monsoon (=season), which reverses its direction every six months.
- Rainy season in summer (40˚ during the day). Heat causes the air to rise à lack of air flow above land is filled by sea air (moist, tropical sea wind from Indian Ocean is called the ‘south-west monsoon’) à causes large amount of precipitation on west coast of India and Himalayas à onshore wind collides with mountains causing rain.
- Winter: north-east wind blows from Asiatic continent to the sea. This off-shore wind is dry.
- Onset of monsoon normally begin in June, precipitation is unreliable: sometimes doesn’t rain or much less à disaster for farmers in Indian countryside.
South-east: longest rainy season
North-east: shortest rainy season and least precipitation
Rain shadow areas: very little precipitation (Deccan plateau, Thar Desert)
- North-east: amounts of precipitation extremely high. Cherrapunji: more than 11m precipitation every year. Rain in mountains flows back to sea via the Ganges and the Brahmaputra.
- Too much rainwater à floods (especially in delta areas in Bangladesh). Every year major floods in drainage basin of the Ganges.
High pressure: too much air
Low pressure: not enough air
Buijs Ballots law is about movement of air pressure, it says wind travels from maximum à minimum
Coriolis effect: because of rotation of Earth, wind in northern Hemisphere turns to right and wind in southern hemisphere turns to left.
Always hot at Equator à air rises and moves away à causes minimum, called tropical minimum.
Always cold at N & S Pole à air goes down and cools à causes maximum, called polar maximum.
Sub-tropical maximum: 30˚ latitude
Sub-polar minimum: 60˚ latitude
July: tropical minimum is north of Equator
January: tropical minimum is south of Equator
Wind turn to the left in southern hemisphere and to the right in northern hemisphere
When the wind passes the Equator it changes direction.
Wind changes 2 times a year around the Equator. These wind changes are called monsoons.
In Asia it brings a lot of rain because it crosses the Indian Ocean.
A = tropical rainforest climate
B = dry climate
C = sea climate
D = continental climate
E = polar climate
BW = very dry dessert climate
BS = less dry steppe climate
add to capital letter: (A,C&D)
f= precipitation all year
s= dry in summer
w= dry in winter
Cs= Mediterranean climate
Aw= savannah climate
add to E:
F= snow in polar regions
H= snow on high mountain ranges
§3.2 - India, land of contrasts
- No other country in the world has such variety of languages, religions and customs.
It is best compared with a continent such as Europe.
- South Asia is a big sub-continent (only 6 states). Political union is a legacy of the British. The colony of British India provided England with cotton, jute and tea. When it became independent in 1947, India was divided into states.
- 21 of hundred of languages are officially recognized. Most important language is Hindi.
- Eighty percent of population are Hindu. But it has the second-largest Muslim population (160 million). Also Christians, Buddhists, Sikhs and followers of Jainism.
Complex social structure
- Also conflicts caused by enormous class differences. Social inequality is normal in India’s complex society. This is because of the caste system. From when you’re born you belong to a certain social group called a caste this determines which job you can do and you have to marry someone from the same case and obey the rules of the case.
- Each caste has its own ‘sub-castes’, called jati. At the bottom of the ladder are the ‘outcastes’, also called the ‘untouchables’. à live in separate neighbourhoods and do dirty work (sweeping the streets, cleaning toilets). They are never allowed to drink from the cup that belongs to their boss who is from a higher caste. There are about 185 million outcastes in India (Dalits).
- Indians are use to obeying rules of their caste and listen to people who are above them. When they don’t they risk coming back into a lower caste in their next life or perhaps even as an animal.
- Officially the caste system has been abolishes but it is actually still very much alive, especially in the countryside.
Exploitation colonies: colonies, which used other people to get rich
Settlement colonies: colonies Europeans went to live (for a new life, job)
Political system: tells you how a country/state is managed.
Centrally-governed country: laws are the same for everything à education, crime, tax, etc.
Sometimes a number of smaller states unite and form a federation.
Famous example: USA with 50 states
§3.3 - Booming India
Globalization in India
- China and India have both a huge population, in both countries economy is growing fast because of globalization. India & China are two of the world’s emerging countries
- Wages in both countries are much lower than in western countries. India is a low-waged economy. Those countries are very attractive for companies in US, West Europe & Japan. Outscoring = to send out work to another company
- India is attractive for the IT sector, companies that work in information and communication technology. IT sector in India is booming with an annual growth of 25-30%.
Hard work and discipline
- Reasons why India is popular with IT companies:
- Many well-educated Indian people speak English as well as their native language. (because of the colonial history)
- Indian IT workers do their work well and are cheap.
- For decades, India & China had a closed economy, with the emphasis on self-subsistence à changed after 1990 à both countries now free market economy à welcomes foreign countries. China is known as the ‘factory of the world’. India is becoming the ‘office of the world’.
- 2005: special economic zones (SEZ’s) were selected. Companies in theses zones have freedom and pay almost no tax. India wants to copy this too.
Globalization/internationalization: the never-ending international movement of people, money, goods and information.
Driving power behind globalization is economy.
Multinational = a company that operates in different countries
- They specialize in the production of goods (computers, medicines, cars, televisions, cigarettes, shoes, soft drinks, detergents)
- 65000 multinationals
- Before they start working they look at economic and political factors.
Economic factors: wage level & education of workers
Political factors: laws, taxes, regulations & willingness of the government to cooperate.
§3.4 – India Shinig?
The elephant is rising
- India is at the beginning of a major metamorphosis. They’re taking their first steps to becoming a developed country.
- Most modern metropolis is Mumbai. (=India’s equivalent of Shanghai). Offices and flats are replacing the slums. Around 50 million Indians belong to a wealthy middle class (fig 16).
- Majority is poor, 1 in 4 people live below the poverty line of 1 dollar a day.
70% live in countryside & work in subsistence agriculture.
In the slums they live in poverty without electricity, clean drinking water or good medical care, many are unemployed or earn some money in the informal sector.
Dual economy = economy with modern, developed part and a traditional, less advanced part. (dual = two)
Population growth versus economic growth
- Population growth à poverty. Everyday 45000 babies are born in India.
- Indian women have 2,9 children on average.
- Reasons why Indians want a lot of children:
- Can bring money
- To look after them
- Religious duty (they prefer sons)
- Daughters are useful à you lose them when the get married à costs a lot because need to provide dowry when they marry.
- Government thinks increasing wealth will have an effect on family size. When people have a job and income they usually want 1 of 2 children.
Absolute number: whole numbers
Relative numbers: in percentages
Birth/death rate = number of births/deaths per year
Easier to compare regions with relative numbers
Demographic transition = long-term changes in population size because of births & deaths.
Fast population growth = population explosion. (look GG)
Population chart/population pyramid is a bar chart that shows the age structure of a population (look in GG). Statistics are in relative or absolute numbers. (fig. 7.8)
Pyramid = fast growth = high birth rate (poor countries) = stage 1 and 2
Grenade = slow growth = low birth rate (rich countries) = stage 4
Onion = shrinking = birth rate falling, death surplus = stage 4 and 5
Development cooperation = developing countries getting aid from rich countries
1st depends on the kind of aid: financial, food, technological or in the form of goods
- Sustainable development aid (for improvements; to train doctors or build roads and water pipelines)
- Emergency aid provided during famines, natural disasters & wars to help people stay alive
2nd depends on who gives the aid: private organisations or governments
- Joint venture = companies that work with company in developing country or with the national government.
- Bilateral aid = donor country (gives aid) & recipient country (gets aid).
Multilateral aid: group of rich countries gives aid to a developing country.
§3.5 – Emerging countries
How big is an economy?
- Size of country’s economy you can describe using GDP (gross domestic product).
GDP = total value of all the goods & services that a country produces in 1 year.
- 1st look at exchange rates à convert GDP of all countries into $ or €.
Exchange rate = value of 1 country’s currency in terms of another country’s currency.
- Look at purchasing power by comparing prices in different countries.
- Calculating GDP on basis of purchasing power à situation in developing countries looks better (costs less to live).
What are emerging countries?
- Nowadays much more difficult to divide the world because many developing countries have rapid growth
- Fig. 23.
Emerging countries: not yet developed countries, which are growing really fast.
A country must fulfil 2 conditions to be an ‘emerging country’;
- Extremely fast growing economy (5-10% per year) à because they are benefiting from the globalization of the world economy.
- GDP is still small, 2/3 of world’s population lives in China & India but they only earn 8% of the world’s economy.
The Big Three – but for how much longer?
- US = biggest economy in the world. Japan and Germany are in 2nd and 3rd place. EU is one of the world’s three great economic powers (together with US & Japan)
- China is moving up to the 2nd place; the prognosis is that it will take the 1st place from the US around 2040. By that time India will be in the 3rd place.
- 4 fastest developing countries: Brazil, Russia, India & China (BRIC countries)
(Figures in book)
Important development indicator: income of population
à Gross National Product (GNP) = all the money that all the people earn together in 1 country.
GNP per head: total GNP/ number of people
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) = all the production in a country expressed in money.
GNP includes all the earnings of the population of a country including of the ones who live there and work abroad.
2 disadvantages of average GNP per head:
- Some countries have just small groups that are rich but the rest are poor à average doesn’t tell you much about actual conditions.
- Not all regions in a country are equally rich or poor.
Globalization is increasing international flow of goods, money and information.
The movement of money is a direct result of global trade.
To improve world trade you must stop tariff barriers between countries.
Countries outside the EU are protected by a tariff barrier: The Common External Tariff
EU, Japan & NAFTA are economic power blocs because they produce all sorts of goods and services and the market is big.
à power blocs are good for the people who live in the country but not for the people outside the country.