Fragile nations in Africa

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  • 3e klas vwo | 2136 woorden
  • 3 juni 2021
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Burundi is a country in Africa which borders Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda and Tanzania.

In Burundi Kirundi, French and English is spoken.

Gitega is the capital of Burundi

The head state of Burundi is Pierre Nkurunziza

The currency used is a Burundian franc

There are 7.877.728 inhabitants


Burundi is a republic. A republic is a representative democracy where the officials that the people elected vote on legislation. The president of Burundi is quite powerful as Burundi is a multi-party where the president is the head of state and also part of their government.

Human rights:

Burundi’s human rights situation remains poor, with widespread abuses all around the country committed by all parties, particularly in rural areas surrounding the capital city. The human rights crisis is still a very big problem as the ruling party try’s to cover up violent political actions like having opposing party leaders quietly arrested and killed. the government says that’s the country is safe but everyone from Burundi know that if you oppose them you could get killed


Burundi is one of the poorest countries on earth which leads to lost of problems of course as it ranks as no# 185 poorest country from the 189 countries in the world, with this shocking number Burundi does have quite a lot of hunger problems. Almost 50 percent of the whole population suffer from food shortage and chronical food insecurity. Because of this Burundi needs humanitarian assistance.


Almost more than three hundred thousand people estimated from Burundi have fled their own country. The reason for this is because of the food shortage and conflict. Because their problems are so bad some of these refugees even enter our country.

Armed conflict

Burundi has had a civil war from 1993 up until 2005. Because of this civil war the country was not safe and lots of people died and fled. Even though the civil war has stopped there are still lots of armed conflicts. The country is quite bloody as even the government will act violently to anyone who goes against them or other armed parties.

  1. in conclusion I think this is thesecondbestAfrican country in this assignment as it does not have as good conditions like CAR,but it can do better.


Malawi borders ZambiaTanzania and Mozambique

In Malawi English and their capital language Lilongwe is spoken

The president of Malawi is peter Mutharika.

In Malawi there are 18,14 million inhabitants


Malawi does have a president in power but compared to the Burundian president he does not have much influence as the from Burundi. The government of Malawi also has a multi-party democracy and the legislative power is executed by a cabinet. But this cabinet is not chosen by the people but by the president.

Human rights

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According to the U.S state department Malawi has major human rights problems. The Malawi police use a lot of violence and excessive force against the Malawi citizens which mostly results in deaths and injuries.


In Malawi there are many hunger problems, and because of covid-19 it has only gotten worse. Malawi’s food crisis has lasted for multiple centuries and because of this there are a lot of charities trying to help Malawi. There is also a huge water problem In Malawi as there is hardly any drinkable water in huge parts of the country. Because of this hinger crisis in Malawi there are about 1.4 million children under the age of 5 who suffer from stunted growth.


Malawi hosts a lot of refugees from Congo which does not help Malawi situation at all as Malawi hosts about 44000 refugees.

Armed conflict

Malawi has quite a lot of international armed conflicts that they partake in. even though it has become less since 2014 when a big political movement ended. The police still uses a lot of violence as well and Malawi is generally very dangerous.

  1. Malawi I believe is the worst country out of this list as it has the worst conditions and is very unsafe forciviliansand for refugees entering their country it is also most likely to go to war which is not good.

Ivory coast

Ivory coast borders GhanaBurkinaFasoMali, guinea, Liberia 

In ivory coast their main language is French, but they also speak the main African languages like SenoufoBaouléBetie ,AttieAgni, and Dioula

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Yamoussoukro is the capital city of ivory coast

AlassaneOuattara is the president

The currency used in ivory coast is west African CFA franc

 There are 25.07 million inhabitants in ivory coast


The politics of ivory coast are very interesting because it all happens in a framework of the presidential representative democratic republic, in this framework that ivory coast pulled together the president is both the head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. In this system there is executive power for the president and the government. Ivory coast has more than three decades of independence from France. Before a rebellion in 2002 split the nation in two was seen as a well-developed economy and a model of stability

Human rights

In ivory coast human rights are protected, as in the constitution stands that discrimination based on ethnicity, religion, race, sex or social status is prohibited. They also prohibited torture, forced labour, slavery, genital mutilation and human trafficking. After the election there have been a couple human rights conflicts in ivory coast and because of this some have fled but compared to the other countries is beter than nothing.


Ivory coast otherwise known as Cote d’ivoire has at least 13.3 percent of the whole population with undernourishmentAlso, about 30 percent of the children under the age of 5 years old have growth stunting, and growing problems. The countries hunger index has a shocking score of 25.7 out of 100. In ivory coast there have been actions against hunger, but this could never help the whole country.


Ivory coast has no problem welcoming refugees show after a long history of having refugees, migrants enter the country. Even though the country has had a lot of political tension it still has held their borders open for anyone seeking for a new home and protection

Armed conflict

Ivory coast had it’s first Ivorian civil war in 2002 that lasted 2 years and ended in 2004 the country spit in 2. The two sides are very different from each other as the north is held by the rebels and the south by the government. Because of this hostility and raids on foreign troops increased. In ivory coast there are also a couple religious conflicts held as the Christians that live predominately south and the Muslims that live predominately north.

  1. ivory coast I believe coast is second to worst because of its bad conditions as it is very unsafe for its civiliansit is not the worstcountry but it can do much better.


Kenya borders Ethiopia, Somalia, south Sudan, Uganda and Tanzania

In Kenya Swahili and English are spoken

Kenya’s capital is Nairobi

The president of Kenya is Uhuru Kenyatta

The currency is Kenyan shilling

There are 51.39 million inhabitants in Kenya


Kenya has a multi-party system as it comes to politics as the presidents of Kenya much like ivory coast is the head of state and the head of government. Kenya is democratic as the people who sit in the chairs in the cabinet are choses by the people from outside parliament.

Human rights

In Kenya the most central theme in its constitution is human rights. Almost every Kenyan in Kenya aspires to have a government that is based on essential values of human rights, freedom, democracy, equality social justice and of course the rights to have food, water education and health these things are also protected there are also a lot of Kenyan websites explaining what human rights are and explaining what is right from wrong.


Kenya’s hunger index ranks at a position of 77 out of 119 countries in the world of developing countries. Hunger in Kenya is very alarming as one in every three Kenyans cannot feed them self’s properly and suffer from poor nutrition this means 14.5 million people in Kenya are undernourished, which means this affects as much people as there are living in china in 2005.


Surprisingly Kenya is the second biggest country in Afrika hosting refugees after Ethiopia. Kenya hosts losts of refugees from South Sudan because of the war between north Sudanand South SudanEven though Kenya hosts losts of refugees does not mean Kenya does not have its own problems because of this refugees are not protected by the government of Kenya. And because the government does not protect these people a lot of dangerous living situations have situated.

Armed conflict

Kenya had a couple of conflicts like for instance their non-international armed conflict against al-Shabaab in Somalia. Kenya also has a couple of ethnic conflicts, these ethnic groups that inhabit the country mostly have multi-party politics which mostly leads to lots of conflicts.

  1. in conclusion Ithink this is the third best country because I think it is in themiddle it’s not the worst but it's also not the best and because of this I think this country stands in the middle of these 5 countries.

Kenya had a couple of conflicts like for instance their non-international armed conflict against al-Shabaab in Somalia. Kenya also has a couple of ethnic conflicts, these ethnic groups that inhabit the country mostly have multi-party politics which mostly leads to lots of conflicts.

  1. in conclusion Ithink this is the third best country because I think it is in themiddle it’s not the worst but it's also not the best and because of this I think this country stands in the middle of these 5 countries.

Central African Republic

This country is a landlocked country which’s borders chad, south and north Sudan, Cameroon, republic of Congo and democratic republic of the cong. In CAR Sango and French is spoken. The capital of CAR is Bangui, and the president is Faustin-archangeTouadéraThere are 4,666 million inhabitants in CAR


The politics mostly take place in a semi presidential republic. Which means that’s the president is head of state, but the government had the executive power. The Central African Republic has been a colony of France but has been independent for the last 60 years. 

Human rights

In the CAR constitution it is stated that all human life is equal. This means regardless of sex, status, wealth etc. this is good but in spite of this Central African Republic does have a really poor human rights situation. CAR is rated 179th out of all the 187 countries. This is caused by the on-going civil war and the continues armed conflicts.


In CAR almost 30 percent of all inhabitants does not have enough to eat, which means nearly 1.3 million people suffer from under nourishment. Lots of children are unable to grow properly and adults are getting sick. Because of this living condition are only getting worse over the years.


In CAR there are lots of refugee camps, refugees are welcome to enter the Central African Republic even though the living conditions are very bad.

Armed conflict

In CAR there has been a civil war since 2012 against the Séléka’s. the Séléka’s have conquered the central African republics capital in 2013. There are lots of armed conflicts in CAR which means it is not a particularly safe place.

1.In conclusion I think CAR is the best country out of these five different African countries as I believe it has the least problems.


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