On the end of the 16th century merchants (from the Dutch Republic) got the possibility to import pepper and spices from Asia.
The Portuguese, who ruled this trade, couldn’t longer provide Europe from pepper and spices. Due to the decrease in supplies, there was an increase in the prices. This market combined with the available capital and knowledge are the necessary conditions for navigation on Asia in the republic.
The routes to India
In the little map next to the text you can see to routes to India by ship. The starting points were, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Middelburg, Hoorn and Enkhuizen. They went through the canal over the Atlantic ocean to the Azores. There they catched winds to the west till the South-American coast. From there, they went further to the south-east. After reaching the Brouwers route they went to Australia. In front of Australia they had to turn north. from Australia there was a hard west wind and with that they reached Java. It was very hard.
The first fleet of the VOC.
The first fleet of the voc was in 1603, the ships were armed with canons. Exept from trading the admiral from the fleet had the task to give as much damage to the potuguese as he could. The first fleet was very succesful. This was the first step to a world wide monopoly.
The 6 chambers of the VOC.
1.Amsterdam: the VOC magazijn 1770
2.Zeeland: Huis van de equipagemeester 1859
3.Enkhuizen: Oostindisch huis 1729
4.Delft: the Scheepswerf 1779
5.Hoorn: Oostindische werf 1727
6.Rotterdam: Oost-Indisch huis 1700
The VOC had lots of ships. Underneath are some of them.
The Batavia is a 17th century sailing ship. The Batavia was build between 1627 and 1628 in Amsterdam.
On 14 april 1629, the ship arrived at the Cape of good hope. After 8 days it departed again, but it went wrong. On 4 june 1629 it crashed onto a reef.
The Duyfken was an explorer. It had place for 20 people. In 1596 it had his first expedition to East-India. In 1606 it went to Papoea-new-guinea en to Australia. That was the ship who discovered Australia before the European explorers.
The Westerbeek was a ship sailing for the VOC. On 2 september 1742 it capsized on his way to the Netherlands. The Westerbeek made 6 journeys to India.
The ship was build in 1722 in Amsterdam. The captain was Herman Schutte. The ship mainly brought, tea, coffee and herbs from India. The voyage from the Netherlands to India took about half a year to a year.
The Gouden Buys
The Gouden Buys was a VOC-ship from Enkhuizen. It was build in 1693. In October 1693 it arrived in South-Africa. From the 190 people there were only a couple alive, the rest died during the journey. The remaining survivors went on land to search for help, because the ship couldn’t go to the cape of good hope anymore.
Food on the ship
The people on the ship were most of the time on the ship for a couple of months. That’s why they took a lot of food with them. Sometimes they had living animals on board, because they were fresh. There was little space for a small garden or animals like cows. Off course they also took things that weren’t as fresh as living animals, like dried apples and fish. They also took beans and biscuit, because they don’t spoil as fast.
Punishment on a ship
How to do (don’t try at home)
Ropes on hands and feet and throw out of the ship
Hang a person so he breaks his neck
Ropes on hands and feet and make the person on a rope and pull him from the left to the right side of the ship (under it)
Push hot iron on a persons skin
Hand and knife
Hand on the table and drop a knife above it (about 3 meter)
Get a lower rank
Cape of good hope.
The VOC had long journeys to Asia and there were some places where they could stay like Sint Helena but also cape of good hope. Jan Riebeeck had the orders of the VOC to use cape of good hope and they build a castle there, Castle the good hope. Around the castle a city started developing, the city we now know as Kaapstad. In the city were gardens with fruits and vegetables. In 1657 the VOC sent some people to Kaapstad to go and work on the land, after that is was a colony of europe.
Castle of good hope.
The end of the VOC
During the 18th century it went backwards with the VOC. One reason was that there was more French and English competition.
The Asian trade brought less money, and the trade of expensive luxury changed to cheap mass-produced trade, so the VOC had less profit. An important damage post, was the private trade, so the VOC went bankrupt. Later people used the name VOC for stupid things like: vergaan onder corruptie (lost in corruption).