Florence Nightingale

Beoordeling 5.4
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  • 3e klas vmbo | 2167 woorden
  • 2 maart 2005
  • 23 keer beoordeeld
  • Cijfer 5.4
  • 23 keer beoordeeld

Taal
Engels
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I have chosen the subject Florence Nightingale, because both my aunt and my mother have studied nursing, and Florence Nightingale was an important woman in the history of nursing. My aunt still works as a nurse in the Lucas Andreas Hospital, and my mother did this for several years, but now she works for mentally handicapped persons. In 8th grade of Elementary School my talk was about Florence Nightingale, because in this year we had to talk about a person, and I thought she was really interesting. I hope I’ll make a good report and that I’ll get a good grade for it!
Florence was born at the 12th of May 1820 in Florence in Italy. She was the second and last daughter of Fanny and William Nightingale. When she was young, she moved to England with her family. Her rich dad couldn’t find a good teacher for his daughters, so he decided to teach them himself. They were taught in some languages, mathematics and more. When she was young, she used to write down her ideas and thoughts.

When she was 18, she travelled with her family and some butlers through Europe for half a year. They travelled by coach, but the butlers had to sit on top of the coach. Florence was really enthusiastic about this trip, and she wrote everything down in her diary what she experienced. Literally she said: “Everything is so different than life at home in England.” Even though she had lots of family who visited her many times in England, she hated being at home. With the coach, first the family went to Nice in Southern France, and after a little while they went to Florence, where she was born. After Florence (also called Firenze), they went to Geneva, in Switzerland. During her trip she had one big secret. On the 7th of February, 1837, she wrote down: “I heard the voice of God; He called me to His service.” After she had written this down, she thought she had to go to His service, even though she has no idea what she had to do. Back in England, first it seemed like nothing had changed. Later, the brother of Florence’s best friend Marianne asked to marry her, but she refused. Most of the time she forgot about her dream to become a nurse, but later on it came back.
When she was 20 years old, she wanted to learn more about mathematics than her father could teach her. Literally she said: “I think I will be more successful in a job with lots of thinking, than just an ordinary job with easy things to do.” Her parents didn’t like this; they thought a young girl had to learn about the house holding and prepare for her marriage. Every morning she studied for some hours before she had to work in the house holding. Meanwhile she figured out she didn’t want a ‘normal’ married life; she wanted to study more and help poor people. Four years later she knew she wanted to work in a hospital and take care of sick people. Her parents didn’t like this, in those years nurses had built up a bad name. The hospitals were bad, dirty and two people in one bed were not unusual. Nurses had to clean and take care of themselves.
After some years, Florence became more and more depressive. She wanted to kill herself. Her parents didn’t know what to do with her, so they sent her to her aunt in London, aunt Mai. Desperate as she was, she decided to start studying mathematics. She wanted to do something that was worth it, instead of doing nothing all day. Aunt Mai understood this, but her parents didn’t. In a couple of months, she was back at home. Every morning she studied Greek, philosophy and mathematics before the rest of the family woke op and she had to start doing her courses.
Nowadays it seems a smart idea for a woman to study nursery, but in that time it was really bad and unusual. In the summer of 1844, an American philanthropy came over to the house of the Nightingales, Dr. Samuel Hope. Florence asked him whether or not it was difficult for a rich woman like her to become a nurse. He thought it wasn’t easy, but it could be really good possible. After a year, Florence decided to follow a study nursery in a hospital. When her family heard this, her mother was shocked and her sister got a hysteric attack…Florence working in a hospital? No way!!
Florence loved dreaming and fantasying. Her sister Parthenope didn’t like the boring lessons of her dad, and she hated the fact that Florence loved those and was good in every subject. In 1850 Florence visited the Deaconesses-group in Kaiserwerth, in Germany. Here she met Dr. Fliedner and his wife Frederike. They told her that she has to be ‘called by God’ to join the nursery. After this, Florence understood why she wanted to be a nurse. When she came back, she found her father with much pain because of an eye-illness. He needed Florence to take care of her, and she couldn’t refuse to do this. She went on a trip with her dad for a special cure, to make him better. After this trip, her dad saw that she could become a really good nurse. When they came home, her dad joined Florence in her fight against her mum and sister about studying nursery.
Finally, in 1851, her father said she was aloud to become a nurse. Her mother still was not okay with it. Meanwhile, she asked several church people what they thought about studying nursery. When her sister heard this, she got more and more hysteric attacks. Finally, they doctor of the queen, Sir James Clark, came over to see Parthe. Soon, Dr. Clark decided Parthe had to go to his house in Scotland for some weeks, and he forbade Florence to take care of her sister. Because of this, Florence left her house because she couldn’t live without her sister.

When she was 33 years old, she was invited to become superintendent of a ladies-hospital in London. In 1854 the Crimean war between Russia, France, Turkey and Great Britain started. The Minister of War, Sidney Herbert, was a friend of Florence and asked her to organize a mission with 38 other nurses to take care of the injured people. She traveled per ship to Scutari, near the Bosporus, against Istanbul. This turned out to be a big drama; there were too many injured people and there came more and more injuries. There were lots of contagious viruses, many people died; the injured soldiers didn’t have enough clean water, good food, good sanitaria, clean beds, clothing and good nursing. Florence was able to organize this chaos; she made a hospital where injured people get enough medicines and help to survive. She worked day and night, and the injured soldiers gave her the nickname “Lady with the lamp”. “We could kiss her shadow if we saw her coming with her lamp to help us,” said an ex-injured from Scutari. She made a database with information about the soldiers, for instance, how many of them died, or how they died (typhus, cholera etc.). At the end of the war, she went back to England. With the information she had collected, she showed that the death rate would decrease if the sanitary was better. The British government gave her money for her help, and from this money she built the first nursery school in England in 1860.
On the 10th of January, 1874 died Florence’s father. Now Florence had to take care of her mother. She did this for four years, but unluckily her mother passed away on the 2nd of February in 1880. Three years later, in 1883, became her sister Parthe very sick, and again it was Florence who took care of her. Parthe died in May 1890, so Florence nursed her for seven years.

Soon Florence was not feeling well enough to stay in public life. At that moment nobody knew what was wrong with her, but a new historical research says she must have had a post-traumatically war syndrome. She couldn’t handle with what she saw during the war. Out of her room she kept on communicating with people, to fight for a better health system for citizen and soldiers. In 1859 she wrote a book, called Notes On Nursing, about what she saw during the war, and it’s also a book about how to take care of sick people. In a couple of years this book became the international handbook for nursing. If you read it right now, you’ll see how smart she was. Almost nobody in the 19th century was so progressive about nursery and hospitality. Because of this book, people see Florence Nightingale one of the most famous persons in nursery, and she’s the starter of modern nursery.
On the 13th of August in 1910, Florence died in her sleep. She became 90 years old.

Florence’s breakthrough came during the Crimean War. During this war she helped injured soldiers with medicines and other health care. But what was this war exactly about?
The Crimean War started in 1853 as a conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, a country under the command of Turkey. Later on England and France joined this war to help Turkey. The reason for this war was that Russia demanded the Turkish sultan to give the holy parts of Palestine back to the Catholics, instead to the Orthodoxies, and to give the Christ’s from the Ottoman Empire more privileges. The Turkish sultan refused to do this, so in July 1853 Turkey took over Moldei and Wachau, two places near the Donau. The heads of Europe tried many times to talk and make peace again, but this didn’t work out.
In September and October 1853 France and England started to help Turkey, so Russia had three opponents instead of one. The English had a big navy, and most of the war happened on the Crimean, an island near Ukraine. During this war, Austria stayed neutral to the outside world, but in secret they threatened Russia to attack them. Because of this, Russia had to withdraw them. A new Russian leader, Alexander II, was hired. Russia succeeded to take over a Turkish part of East-Anatolia, but on the 30th of March 1856 Russia had to sign an agreement from Turkey, which said that they had to give up its colonies and give Christian people in the Balkan more privileges. Finally, Russia was not aloud to sail the Black Sea anymore with their war ships.
The results of this war were many dead and injured people, who Florence Nightingale could take care of, and Russia wasn’t as powerful as before anymore.
The end of the Crimean war was the beginning of many changes, and most of the normal people in the Balkan loved this.

Florence kept on working on the hospital. When everything was in the way she wanted it, she visited other Crimean hospitals. While she investigated the condition in Balaclava, she was so ill that she had to stay in bed. She had Crimean fever! For two weeks she was more dead than alive, but meanwhile she kept on writing letters to hospitals to give remarks on everything. When she was aloud to leave her bed, people where shocked how she had changed. She had a white face and she was terribly skinny. Once she was aloud to work again, there were big problems in the hospital. The army, nurses and nuns had their own war; they had fights with each other about how the hospital should be led. All the problems were projected on Florence. Her family thought this couldn’t continue any longer, and decided to send someone to the hospital. Florence’s aunt Mai was volunteer and on the 16th of September 1855 she arrived with an employer who would be in charge of the supplies. Aunt Mai was shocked when she saw Florence white and skinny. Finally, everything went better in the hospital, but Florence was still weak.
In England, Florence seemed as a hero of the Crimean. The whole country sold Florence-merchandising: plates, cups, statues, poems and inaccurate biographs. A horse and lifeboat where named after her. But Florence didn’t care about it; she knew the horrible truth and how many things had to change in the hospital-world. She collected money for a donation. There came really much money, and on the 29th of November 1855 was the Nightingale Organization born, and a school for nurses was built. People asked the soldiers to give a day-salary for the organization. Florences mum became so proud of her daughter that she wrote her a letter. Florence wrote back, forgot the past and said: “My reputation had never helped my work, but when you’re satisfied that’s enough!”.

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