Hoofdstuk 2 'Between the Wars'

Beoordeling 6.6
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  • Samenvatting door een scholier
  • 3e klas tto vwo | 2708 woorden
  • 2 februari 2015
  • 9 keer beoordeeld
  • Cijfer 6.6
  • 9 keer beoordeeld

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Engels
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Chapter 2 ‘Between the Wars’ summary



2.1 Prosperity and crisis in the United States



The United States had become one of the most, if not the most, prosperous countries in the world in the first ten years of the interbellum. Especially the car and electro-technical industry experienced a boom. Productivity increased because of the switch from coal to electricity and the introduction of the assembly line. The US became the first consumer society, with the increasing demand of e.g. refrigerators and washing machines.



Though, this tempestuous time wouldn’t last for long. After the stock market crash of 1929, where people frantically sold their stocks, the economy fell into a great depression. From 1933, President Roosevelt was able to ease the crisis with the New Deal, where he saved banks with government money and for example started investing in industry and agriculture again.



Interbellum                                          period between the two world wars                             



Assembly line                                      production system where workers always perform the same task on products that pass them by



Consumer society                               society in which many consumer products are bought



Stock market crash                             sharp and quick decline of the price of stocks on the stock exchange



New Deal                                              president Roosevelt’s policy to fight the economic crisis with government spending





2.2 Fascism and communism



Italy After 1915, Italian war veterans felt cheated by their politicians. They became members of commando groups and fought under the name of ‘fascism’, thought of by their leader Mussolini. The fascists came to power with violence in 1922. This believe quickly became popular, mainly because of Mussolini’s talent of speaking. Fascism glorified violence and was against democracy.



In October 1922 Mussolini organized a march on Rome and threatened that they would take over the city if the government did not step down. Fearing a civil war, the king dismissed the government and appointed Mussolini as prime minister. Afterwards, Mussolini drew all the power to himself and became a totalitarian state. Though, he did not completely succeed at becoming a totalitarian state, because the church, army and business life still partly remained independent.



Russia The Russian revolution and civil war had caused a famine. To make revival of the economy, Lenin introduced the New Economic Policy (NEP). Small private companies were allowed again and farmers were allowed to sell part of their production on the free market. This resulted in a certain level of prosperity.



After Lenin’s death, Stalin came forward as communistic party leader. During his first years he eliminated his competitors. After this he thought it was time to make a superpower of Russia and decided that they’d have to catch up with industrialized countries. Very exact plans were made which contained precisely which goals had to be met. The development of heavy industry was a top priority. In this area planned economy was a great success.



Small peasant farms were eliminated and replaced by gigantic farms. Consequently, agriculture was collectivized. The land and other possessions of the farmers were taken away and given to large agriculture companies, named kolkhozy. This is because independent farmers did not fit in a communist society, according to Stalin. Millions of people were killed because of refusing to work on the collectivization of agriculture.



Fascism                                                 anti-democratic, totalitarian, and extreme-national political movement



Totalitarianism                                     system where the government has total control over complete society



New Economic Policy                         Lenin’s policy from 1921 that allowed farmers and small companies to work for the free market



Planned Economy                               economy in which the state decides what should be produced



Kolkhozy                                               large agricultural company where farmers worked together and had to make deliveries to the state at a fixed price



Kulaks                                                   rich farmers, communist term of abuse for farmers who did not cooperate with collectivization



Stalinism                                               variant of communism with extreme oppression under one leader who is revered





2.3 Germany from democracy to dictatorship



After the mass inflation of 1923, a period of peacefulness and prosperity followed. The stock market crash of 1929 ended all this. The economy plunged and millions of Germans became unemployed. The democratic parties did nothing and the two anti-democratic parties benefited from this: the communist party and Hitler’s Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterspartei (NSDAP)



The defeat in 1918 made Hitler a bitter man. In 1920 he joined the recently founded NSDAP. It appeared he was very talented in stirring up his audience. Because of this he quickly became the party’s leader. National-socialism was similar to fascism. It was just as anti-democratic, nationalistic and totalitarian. But unlike the fascists, the Nazis supported a racial doctrine.



In 1923 Hitler was arrested because of his attempt to overthrow the government in Berlin. After his release, the role of the NSDAP seemed to have played out. Because of the global crisis it even became more popular. Hitler blamed the democrats and the Jews. He would erase the ‘dictate of Versailles’ and would make Germany powerful again. He also promised work and prosperity. The SA, the armed division of the NSDAP stormed Jewish shops and bet up Jews, socialist and communists. Also the SS grew which came from Hitler’s security service and was feared for its extreme cruelty.



In January 1933, the conservative elites thought they could use Hitler to end democracy and made him chancellor. They were terribly wrong. Hitler soon dissolved parliament and took over leadership over Germany.



After the transfer of power, the Nazis started building a totalitarian state at lightning speed. Only the NSDAP party was prohibited. A ministry for propaganda was created under the leadership of Hitler’s loyal adjudant Goebbels, who controlled all newspapers, films and radio. Of course all that was advertised was he himself.  All boys and girls had to become members of the Hitlerjugend.



Hitler officially called himself führer of the German nation in 1934.



In violation of the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler started an enormous armaments programme. This led to a decrease in unemployment. Hitler was very popular. But what people did not see, or did not want to see was the terror against political opponents and Jewish citizens who had been deported to concentration camps one year later.



Inflation                                                               when money is becoming worth less



National-socialism                                           extreme nationalist, totalitarian and racist political movement



Nazi                                                                      abbreviation for national-socialist



Racial doctrine                                                   incorrect theory that states are superior and inferior races



SA                                                                          abbreviation of Sturmabteilung, party army of the NSDAP



SS                                                                          abbreviation of Schutzstaffel, Hitler’s elite troops



Concentration camps                                        prison camp





TIMELINE (see learning target *15)



1922                                                                    Mussolini becomes prime minister of Italy



1928                                                                    Stalin becomes dictator of the Soviet Union



1929                                                                    Beginning of the global crisis



1932                                                                    NSDAP became the largest party



1933                                                                    - Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany



                                                                              - Roosevelt becomes president of the US



                                                                              - German Parliament building goes up into flames



- Parliament gave Hitler total control, and he abolished   other party’s










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