1848: The Year of Revolutions:
Social : Means it has to do with the division in groups
Political: Means it has to do with government, ruling the country
Economical: Means it has to do with the way how money is earned
Causes of the revolutions:
Economical; - Bad harvest
- High food prices
- Population growth
Social; - Inequality
- People wanted peaceful change
First revolution broke out in Paris on the 23th of February
- French Army fired on demonstrators complaining about food prices and unemployment.
- The mob (de meningte) rioted and took control of the city.
- 2 days later, the king abdicated (aftreden)
- Government set up workshops for unemployed people .
Some countries did not revolt. They made a constitution to avoid revolts.
Constitution in the Netherlands;
- More rights (freedom of education, speech and assembly)
- Less power for the monarch, who had to work with a cabinet of ministers led by the prime minister. He could only suggest laws, not make them .
- Cabinet and ministers were responsible for the States General
- Provincial States and the Second Chamber were elected by middle class men
- States General had power to make new laws
The Power of Ideas:
The Industrial Revolution leads to a complete new society. Different people have different ideas about how to deal with the problems.
Big Issue; The Social Question:
“What do we do with the difference between the situation of different groups?”
- Keep things as they are, Change is dangerous
- King and nobels must have the power.
- People (middle class people) should have influence in politics
- Personal Freedom – Let people do what they want; States must protect people and property
- No economic interference by the government, then it will all turn out the best.
Free Market: ‘Best product, Best price’
- Workers and other poor people should be helped. The state should do this with laws
- Everybody should be able to vote (universal suffrage)
Karl Marx: “People can be divided into two groups”
- Communists: extremer, complete change of society. (violent) revolution
- Social Democrats: Gradual change is also o.k., by winning the elections
- Religion is very important, also in politics.
In this group are religious people (Catholics and Protestants) from left to right
- They feel that their land (people) is superior to others.
“We are the best”
- Woman should have more rights.
Feminists are often women from the (rich) middle classes.
Germany France Germany France
Abolition of Slavery
Abolitionists worked to abolish slavery.
1807: The British made slave trade illegal
1808: West African Squadron (WAS) of the British navy patrolled the African coast, to catch slave ships.
1819: WAS grew, and was based at Freeport (African town used by slave traders). British were supposed to only stop British ships, but other countries let them stop their ships too. Only the USA refused. (USA’s economy relied on slave trade)
When a ship was caught:
- British kept the ship (if it was British)
- Fined the ship’s owner for 100 pounds a slave
To avoid the fine, many ship owners threw the slaves overboard when they were about to be caught.
They still lost the ship, but did not have to pay the expensive fines.
1823: Anti-Slavery Society was set up. It pressed for the gradual abolition of slavery.
1824: Women’s anti Slavery Societies were set up all over the country pressing for immediate abolition of slavery.
Anti-Slavery Society feared that this would work against the abolition of slavery, and forbade campaigners to go talk at women’s anti-slavery group meetings.
1830: Anti-Slavery Society dropped its demands and campaigned for immediate abolition of slavery
1833: British passed a law to stop slavery all through the British empire. To make sure this happened, they paid a compensation to people who released their slaves.
Abolition of slavery began in 1807 in Britain.
The Netherlands 1863 - They wanted to make rules like; plantation owners have to provide free medical care for their slaves.
- In that case, there was not that much public pressure
France 1848 - They had colonies to support and less public pressure
Britain 1833 - They didn’t rely on slavery
- There was a huge public support for abolition
Prussia 1807 - They didn’t rely on slavery
- There was a huge public support for abolition
Imperialism in Java
Javanese grew just enough food to feed their families, but there were also government-owned plantations that grew coffee, sugar and pepper.
1815: Dutch takes over from VOC. (the age of Napoleon ended)
1824: Netherlands Trading Company – to increase the profit form plantations.
1830: Cultivation System or Cultuurstelsel: Javanese farmers had to work for Dutch for 60 days or use 20% of their own land for government. People started to protest against this system more and more (“Max Havelaar”). Losing 20% would mean less food for Javanese – starvation close. Liberals are against.
1854: reforms were made by the government
1870: Gradual reforms were made to make things fairer: only coffee, paid wages, sugar and indigo cut down, direct Dutch government
1870: Entrepreneurs (Ondernemers) could rent land and organise farming or start industries. (example: Shell started in Java)
1901: Ethical (=doing the right thing) policy – free education, medical care and improving farming techniques.
Dutch used Javanese officials to rule and Chinese merchants to collect many taxes and crops. The farmers were pushed hard.
Koelies: poor people
Imperialism: conquer all of the country
Colonialism: conquer small parts of a country for trading parts
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